Utilization of Recycled Tiles and Tyres in Stabilization of Soils and Production of Construction Materials – A State-of-the-Art Review

Tile waste is found in several forms including manufacturing slurry, manufacturing dust, and solid pieces from cracked, smashed, and rejected tiles at the construction sites. Worn out tyres that are no longer safe to be used by vehicles are either

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  KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering (0000) 00(0):1-15Copyright ⓒ 2018 Korean Society of Civil EngineersDOI 10.1007/s12205-018-1532-2 − 1 − pISSN 1226-7988, eISSN 1976-3808www.springer.com/12205 Geotechnical Engineering  Utilization of Recycled Tiles and Tyres in Stabilization of Soils and Productionof Construction Materials – A State-of-the-Art Review Mohammed Ali Mohammed Al-Bared * , Aminaton Marto ** , and Nima Latifi *** Received October 18, 2017/Revised 1st: January 7, 2018, 2nd: January 18, 2018, 3rd: January 21, 2018/Accepted January 23, 2018/Published Online April 10, 2018 ·································································································································································································································· Abstract Tile waste is found in several forms including manufacturing slurry, manufacturing dust, and solid pieces from cracked, smashed,and rejected tiles at the construction sites. Worn out tyres that are no longer safe to be used by vehicles are either discarded or burned,adversely impacting natural ecosystems. These wastes are non-degradable and have a direct environmental impact. Poor wastemanagement can lead to hazardous pollution, reduced soil fertility, and increased space consumption at disposal sites. The massiveand increasing volume of the tile and tyre wastes calls for recycling of the materials for economical reuse, cleaner production, andgreener development. One area for beneficial reuse of these waste materials is the improvement of engineering properties in soft soil.Structures on soft soils may experience several forms of damage due to insufficient bearing capacity and excessive settlement.Hence, soil stabilization is often necessary to ensure that the soft soil can meet the engineering requirements for stability. Acomprehensive review of the published literature on the use of recycled tyres and tiles to stabilize and enhance soft soils was carriedout. The properties of soft soil-waste mixtures such as liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, compaction behaviour, unconfinedcompressive strength, and California Bearing Ratio have been presented. When used as partial replacement of cement, sand, andaggregate in concrete, the effect of tyre and tile waste on workability, durability, and compressive strength of the concrete has alsobeen presented. Recycled tiles and tyres have been used with or without any other admixtures to sustainably improve the strength andbearing capacity of soil. The suitability of recycled tiles and tyres in soil stabilization has been discussed with regard to enhancementof strength and reduction of settlement. In addition, the beneficial effects of the recycled tiles and tyres, when they partially replacecement, sand or stone in concrete, have been discussed. Keywords: environmental pollution, soil stabilization, recycled tiles, recycled tyre, soft soil  ·································································································································································································································· 1. Introduction Soil stabilization is the physical, mechanical, hydraulic, electrical,or chemical alteration or modification of the main properties of weak soils. It is a technique that has been used since ancienttimes to provide a solid foundation, strong enough to accommodatethe loads imposed by the sub- and super-structure of the buildings,highways and bridges, embankments, and hydraulic structures(Hejazi et al  ., 2012; Kowalski and Starry, 2007). Soil stabilizationmethods are also employed to provide a good subgrade forexisting and future roadway construction projects (Karimi andGhorbani, 2000; Smekal, 2008, Latifi et al. , 2018, 2017a, b, c).Recently, tile and tyre wastes have been introduced asenvironmentally friendly soil stabilizers to solve the growingproblem of waste materials and produce an engineered soil thatcan withstand heavy loads. In the case of ceramic tiles, the wasteamounts to 7% during production process, which causes water,air, and soil pollution if not utilized. The use of ceramic tiles inthe stabilization of soft soil will substantially help resolve theaforementioned pollution problems. 2. Soil Stabilization Materials and Methods 2.1 Soft Soils The term soft soil refers to the soils that have low shear strength,properties that do not meet design requirements, and that exhibitexcessive settlement when loaded. Soft soils are not suitable forfoundation construction applications due to these poor physicalcharacteristics (Al-Bared and Marto, 2017; Fauzi et al  ., 2016;Rashid et al. , 2017, Hassan  et al  ., 2017). Soft soil is a generalterm that constitutes a variety of earthen material with differentcontents and characteristics. Such soils can be clayey (includingmarine clays), silty, or organic (such a peat). The problematicbehavior of soft soils is based on the type of soil it is composedof. According to Makusa (2012), clay has a large surface area compared to its particle diameter while silt is sensitive to TECHNICAL NOTE *Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia (E-mail: albared2009@yahoo.com)**Professor, Dept. of Environmental Engineering & Green Technology; Member, Disaster Preparedness & Prevention Centre, Malaysia-Japan InternationalInstitute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Corresponding Author, E-mail: aminaton@utm.my)***Post-Doctoral Research Associate, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Mississippi State University, MS 39762, USA (E-mail: nlatifi@cee.msstate.edu)   Mohammed Ali Mohammed Al-Bared, Aminaton Marto, and Nima Latifi  − 2 − KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering changes in moisture content. Peat and organic soils are very richin water content (up to 2,000%), and in organics content (up to75%.). Kazemian  et al.  (2011) state that peat soil is problematicfor the construction industry due to its high water and organicscontent, very low strength, and high compressibility. Aljanabi et al.  (2013) observed that peat and organic soils have a StandardPenetration Test (SPT) (N) value of 0-5 blows at 300 mmpenetration. Many of these soils may also exhibit expansiveproperties. An expansive soil is a type of soft soil that swellswhen it gains water and shrinks when it dries out (Baser, 2009).Typically, each of these various soft soil types should be treatedbefore any loading or structure is placed on them or, if that is notpossible, replaced entirely. There are many soil improvement techniques such as use of traditional and non-traditional chemicals, hydrological techniques,and biological methods or a combination of techniques (Fattah  et al. , 2015). The soil is treated to improve its density by compactionor preloading, to control the pore water pressure by electro-osmosis or dewatering, to increase the bonding of the particlesby chemical treatment, or by grouting and reinforcing the soilwith geotextiles or fillers (Otoko, 2014). For the purpose of chemical treatment and physical reinforcement, economical,environment-friendly, and sustainable soil additives have recentlybeen more popular (Chang  et al. , 2016; Rujikiatkamjorn andIndraratna, 2014). Choosing the best stabilization method for treating weak,loose, or soft soils depends largely on the soil characteristics,purpose of treatment, and the required soil strength (Kazemainand Barghchi, 2012). Various treatment methods have beenintroduced in the field of geotechnical engineering over the years,which are now considered outdated, such as chemical methodsusing cement, sodium silicate, and lime as soil stabilizers toobtain the desired physical properties and strength. Amiralian  et al.  (2012) reviewed the use of lime and fly ash as a binder tostabilize the soft soil for construction activities and concludedthat these chemical additives enhance all the mechanical andphysical characteristics of the soft soil. However, using cementkiln dust and lime in soft soil treatment is not economical andalways influences the ecosystems resulting in non-environmentallyfriendly and unsustainable products. However, the discovery of methods that are environmentally friendly and cost-effective isthe main concern of most current studies (Zaliha et al  ., 2013).Roy (2014) used rice husk ash and a small amount of cement indifferent proportions to stabilize clay soil. The results obtainedshowed improvement in the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC)and Maximum Dry Density (MDD) with significant increases inCalifornia Bearing Ratio (CBR) and the Unconfined CompressiveStrength (UCS). Roy (2014) reported the optimum value of ricehusk ash and cement mixture as 10% and 6%, respectively. Thus,utilizing rice husk ash, which is a waste material produced inhigh quantities during rice harvesting, in soil stabilization is aneconomical, environmentally friendly, and sustainable choice.Although cement was used in this study, the rice husk ash usewould decrease the amount of cement when used individually totreat soils as reported by Bushra & Robinson (2010). In addition,they found that 15% cement was the optimum value for softsoils. 2.2 Chemical Additives Many chemical additives are available for use as a soilstabilizer. However, most of them are expensive, non-environmentally friendly, and poisonous. A brief review onchemical additives is presented in the following subsections.Moayedi et al.  (2012) utilized sodium silicate (Na  2 SiO 3 ) to treatorganic soils. The strength of the soil was improved by 220%when 3 mol/L of Na  2 SiO 3 was added. In another study conductedin Malaysia by Faizal et al.  (2015), a commercial sodium silicateliquid-based product called TX85 has been used to treat marineclay. The results of the laboratory tests showed that the additiveincreased the strength of the untreated soil by 4.5 times in 28days of curing. Moreover, the additive could improve the soilplasticity. However, sodium silicate was not determined to be aneffective chemical additive due to its potential environmentalimpact.Cement is considered the oldest method for soil stabilization asit was introduced as soil stabilizer in the 1960s (Makusa, 2013).Tropical peat soil, which is categorized as soft soil, was stabilizedusing cement and bentonite added together in different percentages.This method resulted in improved soil strength (Deboucha et al  .,2008). Another study investigated the effect of adding 5%cement, injecting cement grout or 4% gasoline to the expansivesoil collected in Iraq. The treatment that used 5% cementresulted in a better strength while the addition of 4% gasolinewas found to be the optimum value for this material. Moreover,the internal friction angle was not affected by the treatmentbecause the cement particles had a larger surface area than thesoil particles. However, cohesion was slightly affected by thestabilizers due to the exchange of adhesion (Fattah et al  ., 2010).Cement kiln dust and lime were used together to treat theexpansive soil in Egypt and the results showed an increase in soilstrength and an improvement in all soil properties (Ismaiel,2013). Cement and lime were used together to stabilize peat soil,which possesses highly compressible characteristics. As theamount of additives increased, UCS and MDD increased andOMC decreased. The efficiency of these two additives was alsocompared and cement was found to be more effective than lime(Boobathiraja et al  ., 2014). In another study, the strength of inorganic soil used as a subgrade for road construction wasimproved by treating it with 2% cement (Patel and Mishra,2014). Bushra & Robinson (2009) treated marine clay, whichwas excavated to a depth of 1.5 m, with cement. Cement percentageswere 10, 15, and 20% of the dry weight of the soil. Treatedsamples were cured for 28 days under 100, 150, and 200 kPa stressto represent the samples at the depths of 10, 15, and 20 m,respectively. The results showed that 15% cement was theoptimum value at which the strength was maximum during the28-day curing period. Mousavi and Sing (2015) investigatedthe usage of cement and brown clay to treat soft soil. They  Utilization of Recycled Tiles and Tyres in Stabilization of Soils and Production of Construction Materials – A State-of-the-Art Review Vol. 00, No. 0 / 000 0000  − 3 − found the optimum value of cement to be 10% but when brownclay was mixed with cement, it reduced to 8.5%. Partialreplacement of 1.5% cement by brown clay could be costeffective. The strength of soft soil was significantly improvedby this mixture. Although cement was used as a soil stabilizerthat strengths the treated soil, it is still considered a chemicaladditive that has many negative impacts on the surroundingenvironment and is comparatively expensive. Magnesium chloride and aluminium chloride have been usedto stabilize the swelling properties of the expansive soil.Radhakrishnan et al.  (2014) used these two additives togetherwith the waste product, fly ash, and found that the application of this combination reduced the free swell and swell pressure whileincreasing the strength of the soil, which was to be used as a subgrade. When the amount of the combined additive wasincreased, the swelling properties of the soil decreased andremained constant after reaching a certain concentration. Latifi et al.  (2016a, b) investigated the behaviour of clayey soils mixedwith a magnesium chloride solution. Their results showed a significant improvement in the UCS of the soils, twice as muchas the untreated control samples in seven days because of theformation of magnesium silicate hydrate and magnesiumaluminate hydrate that filled the pores of the soil. Magnesiumchloride was added in different proportions starting from 2% to10 % with increments of 2%. The optimum value was found tobe 8% at which the strength was the highest. In another work byLatifi  et al.  (2015), magnesium chloride was used to treat peatsoil, increasing to six times the untreated samples. For this typeof soft soil, the optimum additive amount was 6% magnesiumchloride which results in the formation of crystalline compoundsthat contribute to the strength. Lime was widely adopted as an additive in soft soils manydecades ago and many studies were conducted on lime-treatedsoft soils. Bell (1996) found an optimum value of 4-6% lime toincrease the strength of the clayey soils and clay minerals. Theincrease in strength was dependent on the amount of watercontent, temperature, and curing period. The highest strengthwas obtained at a water content in excess of the OMC at sevendays of curing. Temperature of curing also influenced the strength.When above 30°C, the strength increased dramatically. Furthermore,lime significantly decreased the plasticity of clay soils. Jha andSivapullaiah (2015) found 6% lime as the optimum value to treatexpansive clay. At lower amounts of lime, approximately 4%,with shorter curing period, fabric changes controlled the behavior;while at 6% lime, the behaviour was controlled by the formationof cementitious compounds which in turn decreased thecompressibility and increased the strength significantly. Limeinjection of underwater marine deposits was studied by Rao andRajasekaran (1994). The results indicated the formation of cementitious compounds between lime and marine particles thatcaused a significant increase in the strength and decreased thecompressibility of marine clay deposits. Zhao et al.  (2014) investigated the use of lime and potassium-based agents separately as soil stabilizers. Chemical, swelling,and soil suction tests were used to investigate the effect of thesetypes of additives on the swelling behaviour of expansive soilcollected from Texas. Laboratory results showed that potassium-based stabilizers can be injected into the soil to form a moisturebarrier that can control the swelling pressure effectively whilelime showed a total suction drop at the low water content that didnot change with the changes in water content. Lime was able toimprove the index properties of the soil. Meanwhile, Nikookar et al.  (2013) found that hydrated lime significantly improved thestrength, Atterberg limits, specific gravity, and pH of peat soilcollected and tested in Iran. In another study, lime silica fumewas used to stabilize the soft soil for square footings before andafter construction of the footing. Lime silica fume is a mixture of lime and silica fume that is defined as noncrystalline silica produced in electric arc furnaces as a by-product of the productionof elemental silicon or alloys containing silicon. The soilunderneath and around the square footing was grouted by a slurry of the mixture (4% lime and 5% silica fume). It was foundthat the soil’s bearing capacity and strength was increased in therange of 6.58 - 88% (Fattah, 2016). Marine clay collected from Iskandar Johor, Malaysia wastreated using hydrated lime by Yunus et al.  (2015). They foundthat the hydrated lime increased the strength of the soil in a seven-day curing period. Gravina   et al.  (2016) used 3, 5, and 7%lime as a binder to treat Paraguayan Chaco clay and found thathigher binder content and overall higher density of the soil led toa higher environmental impact. When the lime content wasincreased, the strength and stiffness of the soil increased. Allthese studies suggest that traditional chemical additives increasethe strength of the soil, but pose environmental and economicproblems. Furthermore, if the sulphate content of soft soil ishigh, lime starts to deteriorate the strength after a long period of time. This is due to lime forming expandable minerals such asettringite and thaumasite as reported by Rajasekaran (2005). 2.3 Recycled Additives Some recycled additives have also been investigated for theireffectiveness in improving the soft soil. Fauzi et al  . (2016)investigated the effect of cut waste plastics together with recycledglass powder on expansive clayey soils. In their study, theengineering properties of the soil, to be used as a subgrade forpavement, were evaluated after adding both waste plastic andpowdered glass. Samples were analyzed using a triaxial   test,CBR test, UCS test, and standard compaction test. The percentagesof both additives used were 4, 8 and 12% of the weight of thetested soil. The presence of aluminium and silica in theadmixture contributed to producing a stabilizing compound thatimproved the characteristics of the weak soil. Furthermore, theliquid limit and plasticity index values reduced as the percentageof the additives increased and the engineering propertiesimproved when both cut plastic and glass powder were used inthe soil admixture. In addition, cohesion and the friction angle of the soil increased as the additive content increased. Yilmaz et al. (2015) examined the use of waste materials in   Mohammed Ali Mohammed Al-Bared, Aminaton Marto, and Nima Latifi  − 4 − KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering stabilizing the soft soil collected in Turkey and focused on theeffect of the waste materials on mitigating the freezing andthawing of soil in seasonally cold climates with severe temperaturefluctuations. These changes in temperature make the soil deformduring freezing and lose its strength during thawing. The mainobjective of their research was to determine the suitability of thewaste obtained from Green Bayburt Stones (GBS) to enhancesoil properties. GBS has many applications including its use indecorating buildings. However, its use always results in a largeamount of waste. Indeed, wastage is approximately 60% duringthe mining and cutting processes, which causes severe environmentalproblems and health hazards. In Yilmaz  et al.  (2015), GBS wasadded to the soil in four different percentages; 5, 10, 15, and20%. The same proportions were also added into the soil togetherwith 6% of lime. The results showed that the UCS of the samplesstabilized with a combination of GBS and lime increased morethan 1,000% while the UCS of the samples stabilized with GBSonly increased only about 20%. Hence, recycled GBS cannot beused independently, but needs a binder, such as lime, to bind theparticles with the soil to increase its strength.Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) is an abundant material producedat palm oil factories and utilizing this material contributes tocleaner production and greener environment. Mujah  et al.  (2015)used POFA obtained from palm oil industry as a filler material toimprove the soft peaty soil in Sarawak, Malaysia. Two sizes of ash additives (0.03 mm and 0.012 mm diameter) were added tosoft soil for comparison. The results showed that the smallparticle size was more effective than the larger one in terms of strength and soil stabilization. The shear strength parameters(cohesion and friction angle) were improved by 50-60%.Another study by Pourakbar  et al.  (2015) utilized POFA togetherwith cement to stabilize clayey soil in Johor, Malaysia. At thefirst stage, the clayey soil was treated with POFA only and thencement and POFA were added to stabilize the soil in a later stage.The ratio of cement-POFA binder was 90-10, 80-20, 70-30, and60-40%. The binder was added to the soil in three percentages; 5,10, and 15% of the dry weight of soil. The UCS of the clayey soiltreated with POFA was 160 kPa at 28 days curing period.However, the cement-POFA additive sharply increased thestrength of the soil. In addition, the plasticity of the soil wasreduced by the addition of the cement-POFA binder, which is a good improvement to the soils since soil with high plasticity isconsidered problematic.Most studies focused on the use of chemical additives, but theyare costly, harmful, and non-environment-friendly. Only a fewconsidered the use of recycled additives. Therefore, the nextsection discusses the use of some types of recycled material thatcould be used in soil stabilization, namely recycled tiles and tyrewastes. Treating the soil with tiles and tyre wastes wouldcontribute to clean and sustainable environment and reduce thetendency of the contractors and geotechnical engineers to usechemical additives. 3.Recycled Tyre and Tile Wastes and Their Poten-tials 3.1 Recycled Tyre Waste In the context of this research, recycled   tyre waste is describedas vehicle tyres that are recycled and reused as a whole in slopestability or as modified shapes (shredded into small pieces) insoil improvement (Marto  et al. , 2013; Mohamad et al. , 2013;Turer, 2011). The volume of tyre waste increases rapidly everyyear all over the world and massive amounts of tyres are beingthrown away without any concern about the consequent hazards,such as supporting the spread of mosquitoes and mosquito-bornediseases because the insects gather in the water that accumulatesinside the tyres. In addition, non-recycled tyres have nocommercial return (Hazarika and Yasuhara, 2015; Phale, 2005;Torgal et al  ., 2011). About 80% of tyre waste is being recycled inthe United States (Sullivan, 2006). Tyre waste can be used inmany civil engineering applications, depending on how it isprocessed, i.e., shredding and removing reinforcements (Carreon2006). Tyre rubber can be cut into specific sizes for use as a soilstabilization agent and added to soil in different percentages(Singh and Vinot, 2011). In some cases, nylon and steel areremoved from the tyre waste when it is used as a soil additive.Tyre waste has many useful properties when it is used as a subbase under pavements; it is beneficial to the life cycle of thepavement because it can improve drainage and can be compactedand consolidated easily. It is also a lightweight filler (Prasad andRaju, 2009). Yang et al.  (2002) investigated the mechanicalproperties of tyre waste and found that its strength is notdependent on the particle size. Tyre rubber waste is a major environmental problem that affectshuman beings, animals, and plants. Utilizing this waste productin soft soil treatment and other civil engineering applications willmitigate the environmental problems and result in new productsthat contribute to protecting the environment. 3.2 Tile Waste The term tile in this review refers to all types of tiles includingceramic, marble, and stone that are blended or crushed intocertain sizes to be used in soil improvement and civil engineeringapplications. In addition to the wastage from tile factories duringthe manufacturing process, this review considers the tile wastefrom construction activities. A significant amount of waste isgenerated from construction and demolition (C&D) activities(approximately 75% of the total waste produced worldwide), andabout 54% of C&D waste is ceramic-based. To give an indication of the magnitude of this problem, a minimum of 400,000 kg and a maximum of 800,000 kg of ceramic tile waste is produced everytwo weeks in one factory in South Africa and all the waste isdumped in landfills (Zimbili et al. , 2014). According to Elçi(2016), the wastage from the production process in the ceramictiles industry accounts for about 7% of the total production and itis dumped in landfills. A study conducted in Brazil showed thatapproximately 1,000,000 kg of ceramic tile waste is generated  Utilization of Recycled Tiles and Tyres in Stabilization of Soils and Production of Construction Materials – A State-of-the-Art Review Vol. 00, No. 0 / 000 0000  − 5 − each week (Pelisser  et al  ., 2015). Moreover, Ahmad et al. (2014)has produced a list of the most frequently wasted materials inC&D activities in Malaysia. In his list of 15 constructionmaterials, concrete was in the sixth place, followed by tiles in theseventh. According to Anting  et al  . (2014), cracked, broken, orsmashed tiles are not used in the construction industry and willfinally end up as waste. In fact, ceramic tiles are wasted not justduring the construction of new buildings, but also in therenovation of the existing ones. According to Al Bakri et al.  (2008), about 30% of the ceramictiles produced by the tile industry in Malaysia end up as wasteproducts. Moreover, Mahayuddin  et al.  (2008) conducted a studyin Ipoh, Malaysia at one of the illegal dumping sites to evaluatethe amount of construction waste and the way it is dumped intothe environment. They found about 286,500 kg ceramic tilesamong the illegally dumped construction waste materials. Ingeneral, the tile industry waste is dumped at the nearest point tothe factory and by the addition of water during the cutting of thetiles, the waste created is in the form of a liquid slurry thataccumulates in water resources and on the ground; thus, adverselyaffects the surrounding environment. Fig. 1 shows the loss of plants near a tile factory because of the accumulation of tileslurry. This type of tile waste was investigated for use in theproduction of pavement blocks by mixing it with 15 wt% and20-30 wt% of cement. The end product, a tile-cement mixture,had the required strength to be used as paving blocks when itcontained 20-30 wt% of cement and was cured for seven dayswhile those containing 15 wt% of cement required a longercuring period (more than 28 days) before they were suitable foruse (Wattanasiriwech et al. , 2009).The literature review on the amount of tile waste suggests thatreusing this waste in civil engineering applications will reducethe environmental impacts and produce cleaner and strongerproducts. Fig. 2 depicts the amount of ceramic tile waste reportedby various researchers. 4.Utilization of Tyre Waste in Soft Soils andEngineering Materials The behavior and engineering and mechanical properties of soft soils such as peat and organic soils are difficult to predict orevaluate. Peat soil consists of timber and roots that are formedinto the soil under certain conditions while the organic soil isformed from a variety of organic materials (Omar and Jaafar,2000). Peat soils are also formed in tropical wet areas fromvegetation that has been chemically changed and may differ incontent from one location to another (Kazemian  et al  ., 2011).Construction on these types of soils, which are prevalent in manyparts of Malaysia, is impossible and a suitable method of treatment is needed to make them more solid and to increasetheir load-bearing capacity. Owing to the increasing number of vehicles on the road andthe lack of proper management of the tyre waste, a large amountof tyre waste has been produced in recent years; 57,391,000 kgtyre waste is generated annually in Malaysia alone (Kumar,2006). Such wastes are suitable candidates to treat peat andorganic soils despite some economic challenges. Fig. 3 represents a comparative analysis of the optimum percentage of tyre rubberto be used as a soil additive proposed by various researchers. 4.1 Use of Tyre Waste Alone in Stabilization of Soft Soils Use of tyre waste in the treatment of soft soils has beeninvestigated by Daud et al  . (2015), who studied the improvementof the subgrade for the purpose of road construction. The soilsused in the study were peat and clay soils collected from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The shredded rubber additive was free of  Fig. 1.Accumulation of Tile Slurry Causes Losses of Vegetation(Rana  et al. , 2016)Fig. 2.Amount of Ceramic Tile Wastes Generated from Factoriesand Construction Sites Reported by Various Researchersfrom 2008 to 2015 Period of TimeFig. 3.Optimum Percentage of Tyre Rubber Additive Proposed by Various Researchers for Soil Stabilization
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