The Relationship between Managers’ Power Sources and Workers’ Organizational Commitment of Registration Offices of Northern Khorasan-Iran

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The Relationship between Managers’ Power Sources and Workers’ Organizational Commitment of Registration Offices of Northern Khorasan-Iran

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   International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN:2319-6890)(online),2347-5013(print) Volume No.3, Issue No.6, pp : 413-417 01 June 2014 IJER@2014 Page 413 The Relationship between M anagers’ Power Sources and W orkers’ Organizational Commitment of Registration Offices of Northern Khorasan-Iran Morteza Pourjafar Devin¹,   Prof. G.V. Bhavani Prasad ², Hadi Saeidi³ 1 Department of Statistical,  3 Department of Accounting, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan , Iran 2 Professor of Business Management Kakatiya University, Warangal,India saeedi260@gmail.com,p_atrak@yahoo.com, bhavaniprasadgv@gmail.com Abstract: The role registration offices play in identification is so important that can affect on success of other organizations and institutions of a society. Human force and management of human force is one of factors affecting greatly on viability and efficiency and effectiveness of organizations. Organizations having faithful and attached workers who consider the goal of organization as their own goal, satisfy internally by reaching to that goal   , don’t tend to leave their organization and defend from organization interests out of organization may have more efficiency with the least costs. In such organization, the role played by managers and power sources they use in order to obtain the most efficiency from workers is of high importance. In the present paper, power sources used by managers of registration offices in Northern Khorasan are studied and their effect on workers’ organizational com mitment is measured in 95% level. The final result indicates that there is a significant relationship between different power sources of managers and workers’ organizational commitment. Key words: manager’s  power; Canonical power;   Force Power; Reward Power; Specialization Power; Authority Power    Introduction Today, management and leadership of complex and bureaucratic organizations some called them organization-world and management era demands comprehensive knowledge of management more than ever. So, human factor has been often considered by authorities and managers of organizations. On the other hand, management experts believe that if workers ’  actual needs aren’t considered, organization faces with reduced  productivity. Organizational commitment is concerned with many job  behaviors of workers. One of weakness and shortages of organizations in the country is lack of attachment and strong organizational commitment and faithfulness of workers and managers to their respective organization. Low organizational commitment is continuously associated with delay, absence and leave of organization and leads to increased cost and reduced efficiency. (Argon, Abbas, 1998) Power source is characteristic of a place from which power owner may obtain his power base. Studies conducted on management methods one of its important variables is influencing through power can highlight to some extent interaction of two variables of power and organizational commitment; in this case George Litvine and Robert Stringer can be noted. Statement of problem: One of the most important tasks that every organization and every social institution is responsible for achieving the objectives of the organization. In recent years we have witnessed the success or failure of many organizations are defeated. Service organizations are also one of the most important organizations in the community and have a special place. Discussion of power management and organizational commitment and the factors affecting their departments and agencies to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of today can have a significant effect. No doubt various elements in the success or failure of agencies involved in achieving the organization's goals. Meanwhile, one of the most important factors that can influence the kind of authority that managers for their employees to use the point. For example, the bureaucratic authority (bureaucracy), ordinances, rules and regulations are the  basis for the manager; the employees are expected to respond appropriately, otherwise the consequences of their work. (Sergiovanni, J. Thomas 2005)   Research necessity and importance Studies conducted on management and leadership indicate that using power sources in proportional to workers is the main route of effectiveness, efficiency and creating dynamic and healthy atmosphere in an organization and leads to create order and increased efficiency and development and growth of multiple statistics along with the main goals of organization. High organizational commitment of workers is only possible by employing appropriate and useful power sources by managers and authorities as effective and main decision makers of organization. (Moghimi, Sayyed Mohammad, 2004) So, it is necessary to study and recognize power sources used by managers as a very effective and sensitive variable as well as one of important factors of leadership, decision making and   International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN:2319-6890)(online),2347-5013(print) Volume No.3, Issue No.6, pp : 413-417 01 June 2014 IJER@2014 Page 414 influencing on workers and its effect on workers’ organizational commitment. Research purposes Considering that one of important items in effectiveness and efficiency depends on the performance and how an organization is cont rolled by organization managers’ power and sustainability and solidarity of organization and its success and failure are srcinated from organizational commitment of workers and employees, (Namazi, Mahmood, 2008) following goals are sought out in this research: 1-   Main goals of research -   Explaining the relationship between power sources used  by managers and authorities with workers’ organizational commitment of registration office of Northern Khorasan   -   Identifying available obstacles between managers’  power and workers’ organizational commitment and removing them in order to increased performance and job incentive and consequently high quality services   -   Offering solutions for registration office to increase workers’ organizational commitment -   Reduced excess costs such as ten circulation, forming lack files 2-   Secondary goals -   Determining the relationship between canonical power source used by managers and the extent of workers’  organizational commitment -   Determining the relationship between rewarding power source used by managers and the extent of workers’ organizational commitment -   Determining the relationship between compulsory  power source used by managers and the extent of workers’ organizational commitment -   Determining the relationship between authoritative  power source used by managers and the extent of workers’ organizational commitment -   Determining the relationship between professional  power source used by managers and the extent of workers’ organizational commitment -   And considering above results, if required holding in service training courses for managers to use power sources correctly and create positive subjectivity in workers for accepting and enhancing commitment to their organization Variables Independent variable (predictor measure): Power sources used by managers in registration offices. Dependent variable: T he extent of workers’ organizational commitment of registration office of Northern Khorasan. Moderator variable: Gender of testers, degree of educational certificates and management years of managers and services years of workers. Power sources in organization Considering above definitions about power suggested by experts including Luxe, Steaven, Robbins, Silze, Leonardo Sergiovanni, in the present paper power sources offered by Sergiovanni and Robbins are used. Power is a potential ability A has to influence on B’s behavior so that B is forced to do something (Stephen P. Robbins, 2001). Power is ability to influence on others and influence is an action leading to change in his ideas or behaviors directly or indirectly. (Rezayian, Ali, 2005)  Power bases As said earlier, power of an individual or group is appeared  by dependence of others to it. But where is this dependence? In this research, five power bases are introduced: 1-   Power based on force This power is based on force or threat. Force may be in the form of drive one to extremities and excluding from access to primary needs. 2-   Power based on reward If one can donate something with positive value to others or get him the thing with negative value, he has the power  based on reward. 3-   Canonical power In official groups and organizations, this is probably organizational structure by which one can obtain power  base. This is canonical power indicating the power one obtains under position and organizational statute. 4-   Power based on specialization This power is related to people who have special skill or knowledge. Since technology is progressing increasingly, organizations are more and more dependent to specialists.   However, by increasing low cost labor force specially in the third world countries, this power is decreasing . 5-   Power based on authority This power is created by praising one from of the other  person and his wish for resembling him and is grounded in idealism goals. If one is praised and become a role model in  behavior and attitude, he has authoritative power  . Theoretical definition of organizational commitment 1-   Organizational commitment is inclination to stay in the organization, attempting for organization and accepting organization values 2-   Organizational commitment is an attitude about faithfulness of organization workers and is a continuous   International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN:2319-6890)(online),2347-5013(print) Volume No.3, Issue No.6, pp : 413-417 01 June 2014 IJER@2014 Page 415  process which makes an organization successful by involving people in organizational decisions. 3-   Organizational commitment is positive and negative attitudes of people toward entire organization rather than job in which they work. In Organizational commitment, there is a strong faithfulness from which organization identifies itself (Astervon, 1998 ) Operational definition The score obtained from questionnaire of organizational commitment indicates the extent of workers’ commitment to their organization. The score obtained from power sources test indicates that which source(s) has been used by each manager. Statistical analysis To measure validity of the questionnaire prepared by a primary research, 30 copies of questionnaire designed were filled in by workers of registration office of Northern Khoreasan then completed questionnaires were measured by using SPSS software by Cronbakh Alpha and the values are shown in the following table I. Table I.   Cronbakh Alpha test values According to table of Cronbalkh Alpha, considering values obtained in each hypothesis and because all values are more than 75%, it can be concluded that all questions of any hypothesis are consistent with each other and in the final line relating to all questions of power (reward, force, canonical, authority and specialization) alpha of managers’ power is more than 75% indicating consistency of all questions related to managers  power resources. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize information gathered and become familiar with the sample studied. Descriptive statistics isn’t aim at reasoning but describe and extract main points and realize information combination by aid of number language. Inference statistics in general aims at inferring statistics through analysis of available information in sample data and generalization them to statistical universe. Hypotheses tests Since our variables are of rank scale, indices should be used for summarizing data which are consistent with our data type. If data were of proportional scale, the best index of central tendency would be average but because our data are ranked, other indices are used. In this thesis we use mean as central tendency index which is the most competent measure for our variable contents. Since in the questionnaire prepared, questions 1 through 15  belong to the trait organizational commitment, intra group mean was used to summarize the answers of 15 respective   questions, so that 15 answers was compressed to one answer so there would not be any problem for analysis. Thus hereafter if    organizational commitment is mentioned, it means abstract and mean of questions 1 through 15. For questions related to managers’  power resources, first answers of questions related to power types (reward, force, law, authority and specialization) were summarized then only one variable, mean, of each questions group were obtained. In this  paper, questions 1 through 6 are related to reward power, questions 13 through 18 are related to law, questions 19 through 24 authority and questions 25 through 30 specialization power.  Now to calculate managers’ power index again by intra  group mean method among all questions related to justice of managers’  power resources , compressed answer known as managers’ power extent was extracted. To test each hypothesis, methods related to ranked data are used. So test statistics are used which is specific to ranked data. To test each relationship, one output known as p-value which is sig or significance probability was obtained by aid of SPSS. Special accuracy should be considered for each test which is called test accuracy and donated by 1- α and in researches it is commonly taken to be 90% or 95% or 99%. In this paper, test accuracy is considered 95%.  Now, if sig is smaller than 0.05 it can be said with 95% accuracy that there is a significant difference between means of ranks of two groups; in other words the factor affects on our variable. The first and most important test: Is there any relationship between power resources used by managers and workers’ organizational commitment? Spearman correlation coefficient was used to test this hypothesis. This test provide both correlation coefficient  between two variables of workers’ organizational commitment  and power resources used by managers and a sig value which is related to test whether managers’ power resources affect on workers’ organizational commitment. (Table II)After conducting  particular steps, following result was obtained: Table II. Result of power resources used by managers and workers’ organizational commitment     International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN:2319-6890)(online),2347-5013(print) Volume No.3, Issue No.6, pp : 413-417 01 June 2014 IJER@2014 Page 416 Considering above output, it is found that sig value is smaller than 0.05 so it can be said that the hypothesis that the interaction of two variables is ineffective would be ruled out so with 95% accuracy it can be said that there is a relationship between organizational commitment and the extent of power used by managers. Since the value of correlation coefficient between organizational commitment and managers’ power extent is 0.637 and its sign is positive it can be concluded that there is a direct relationship between two variables with increasing(decreasing) one leading to increased(decreased) the other. So the main hypothesis in this paper is supported in 95% level. Secondary hypotheses 1-   Is there any relationship between canonical power source used by managers and workers’ organizational commitment? 2-   Is there any relationship between reward power source used by managers and workers’ organizational commitment? 3-   Is there any relationship between force power source used by managers and workers’ organizational commitment? 4-   Is there any relationship between authority power source used by managers and workers’ organizational commitment? 5-   Is there any relationship between specialization power source used by managers and workers’ organizational commitment? To test hypotheses noted, again spearman correlation coefficient and its specific test were used and following results were obtained:   Manage rs’ power source   Workers’ organizational commitment Reward  power Spearman correlation coefficient 0.420 Sig 0.00  Number    45 Force  power Spearman correlation coefficient -0.488 Sig 0.00  Number    45 Canonical power Spearman correlation coefficient 0.359 Sig 0.00  Number    45 Authority power Spearman correlation coefficient .685 Sig 0.00  Number    45 Specialization  power Spearman correlation coefficient 0.636 Sig 0.135  Number    45 Table III. Test hypotheses noted, by spearman correlation coefficient and specific test The first secondary hypothesis: In above outputs by aid of sig it is found that there is a relationship between managers’ reward power and organizational commitment and since correlation coefficient  between them is 0.420 and it is positive it is suggested that there is a direct relationship between managers’ power source and managers’ organizational comm itment with increasing one leading to increase the other. So the first secondary hypothesis is supported. The second secondary hypothesis  is also supported because sig value obtained is 0.00 which is smaller than 0.05 and it is negative indicating that there is an inverse relationship between managers’ force power resource, procedural ju stice, and organizational commitment. This means that by increasing managers’ force power source, workers’ organizational commitment extent may decrease. The third secondary hypothesis  is supported. Since sig value obtained is less than 0.05 so it can be said that there is a significant relationship between managers’ canonical power and workers’ organizational commitment. Considering  positively of correlation coefficient it reveals that there is a direct relationship  between two variables. The forth secondary hypothesis  is also supported considering the small sig. Regarding correlation coefficient is 0.685 it can be inferred that there is a direct and relatively strong relationship  between managers’   authority power resource and workers’ organizational commitment. The fifth secondary hypothesis  is also supported because of low sig and high correlation coefficient. Positive sign indicates a direct relationship between the two respective variables. Conclusion Considering the results obtained from testing research hypotheses, the important result was that there is a significant and strong relationship between power resource used by office chiefs and workers’ organizational commitment of offices in   International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN:2319-6890)(online),2347-5013(print) Volume No.3, Issue No.6, pp : 413-417 01 June 2014 IJER@2014 Page 417  Northern Khorasan. However, since power resources could be obtained separately, the relation of individual power resources with workers’ organizational commitment was tested and revealed that except managers’ specialization power resource other power resources used by chiefs had significant effect on workers’ organi zational commitment. There is no relationship  between specialization power resource and organizational commitment because perhaps registration office is an organization its all chiefs are of adequate specialization; so specialization is considered as a constant characteristic of a chief and this doesn’t provide superiority. As to force power resource, the result obtained indicates an inverse relationship between  power resource and organizational commitment which is hesitative because using this type of power may lead to progress short time goals but since it reduces workers’ organizational commitment, work efficiency will be reduced in long term. So it is not recommended to use this management type. References i.    Argon, Abbas. (1998). Study organizational culture and its effect on managers decision making in sound and image organization of Islamic republic of Iran. M.A Thesis of Government Management. Tehran University ii.    Astervon, Hussein. (1998). Organizational commitment, management in education .17(5), 73-74. iii.    Moghimi. Sayyed Mohammad, (2004). Organization and survey-  procedural management. Termeh Publication (3th ed.). iv.    Namazi, Mahmood. (2008). Study the relationship between managers  power resources and organizational commitment of teachers in Shirvan High  schools. v.    Rezayian. Ali. (2005). Management principles. Samt Publication (17th ed.). vi.   Sergiovanni, T. (2005). Strengthening the Heartbeat: Leading and  Learning Together in Schools, John Wiley/Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. vii.   Stephen P, Robbins. (2001). Organisational Behavior, PHI India Pvt Ltd,  New Delhi.
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