The Pairs of Cooks in the Royal Dining Hall and the Akiti Calendar during Šulgi 45-48

The Pairs of Cooks in the Royal Dining Hall and the Akiti Calendar during Šulgi 45-48

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    The Pairs of Cooks in the Royal Dining Hall and the Akiti Calenda r during Šulgi 45 -48 Wu Yuhong and Chen Yanli 1  Northeast Normal University (Journal of Ancient Civilizations 2013 vol. 28) Wu Yuhong published an article on the animals issued to the é-uz-ga institution and its two cooks and two articles on the Calendar starting from the Month of Akiti in Puzriš -Dagan in 1996, 2000 and 2002. 2  From 2006, more and more Puzriš -Dagan texts has been available to us through BDTNS and CDLI on the web, this situation urged us to revise and make a complete archives of the four pairs of the cooks ( muhaldim ) working in the é-uz-ga  dining hall, who succeeded each other for 26 year from Šulgi 43 to Ibbi -Sin 2. 1. Ma šda Calendar and Akiti Calendar   from Š 45  to 48 The dating of the texts of the reign of Šulgi is quite complex work since from Š 45, the first month of a year started from the Akiti month, which was the sixth month of the normal Mašda Calendar used in Puzriš -Dagan, which followed the Ur Calendar,  but during the period of Šulgi and Amar  -Sin, its second month iti- maš -dà~gu 7  was changed to the first month, so that the month iti- še -kin-kud could be synchronized with to the same named month of Nippur, as the 12 th months of both calendars. We have found some texts which use month of Akiti as the first month and month of iti-ezem-Ninazu as the last month, which is the Akiti Calendar. We distinguish the Akiti Calendar as Š 44’ viii’ →48’ vii’, which are equal to Š 45 i → 48 xii of the Ma š da Calendar, for four years. 1  The texts are collected both by Chen Yangli and Wu Yuhong, and Wu Yuhong wrote the article. We would like to acknowledge our extensive use of both the databases of the Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (CDLI <>) and of the Database of Neo-Sumerian Texts (BDTNS <>), especially to use the photos of the texts to collate some signs in their transliterations of texts. The collated signs are marked with *  asterisk. 2 Wu Yuhong, The Ewes without Lambs and Lambs Cooked in É-uz-ga, the Private House of Kings in the Drehem Archives,  JAC   11, 1996; How did they Change from Mašda Y e ars to Akiti Years from Šulgi 45 to Šulgi 48 in Puzriš -Dagan,  JAC   15, 2000; The Calendar Synchronization and the Intercalary Months in Umma, Puzri š -Dagan, Nippur, Lagash and Ur during the Ur III Period,  JAC   17, 2002.    Table 1: Month of Akiti as the 1 st  (i ’ ) and Ezem-Ninazu (xii ’ ) as the Last Month with the Intercalary Month Š 45’ i’ - xii’ =   Š 45/6/0 - Š 46/5/0 Urbilum   iti-á-ki-ti--ta , iti~ezem- d Nin-a-zu -- šè ,  iti~  12-kam,  mu~ Ur-bí-lum ki  ba-hul. (NYPL 157, P122695) From Month of Akiti to Month of ezem-Ninazu , 12 months, Year of Urbilum was destroyed. Urbilum   Š 45’ i’ - xii’ = Š 45 /6/0- Š 46 /5/0   bisaĝ -dub-ba , mu-túm , ù zi-ga , kuš dùg-gan, kišìb -  Na-ra-am-ì-lí  , ki~ Na- sa 6 . iti~  á-ki-ti--ta, iti~  ezem- d  Nin-a-zu-- šè,  iti~  12-kam,  mu~ Ur-bí-lum ki  ba-hul. (RA 09 042 SA 19 pl.1)   The archive chest: the delivery and withdrawal, on the leather bag, receipts of  Naram-ili, from Nasa . From Month of Akiti to Month of ezem-Ninazu , 12 months, Year: “Urbilum was destroyed.”   Š 45’ xiii’ = Š 46/ 4 2 /27 mu-túm~ lugal d En-líl-lá ì-dab 5 , iti-ki- siki- d  Nin-a-zu- min,  mu Ur-bí-lum ki  ba-hul delivery for king, Enlilla took over. The second Month of Kisiki-Ninazu,Year: “Urbilum was destroyed.”  (TRU 144) Š 45’ xiii’ -xiv ’ = Š 46/4 2 -5 2  (BCT 1 075) mu-túm-lugal   ki  Na-ra-am-ì-lí  -ta iti-ki-siki-  d  Nin-a-zu- min-kam , iti-Ezem- d  Nin-a-zu- min -kam, iti-2-kam, mu Ur-bí-lum ki  ba-hul delivery for king from Naram-ili ...The second Month of Kisiki-Ninazu and second Month of Ezem-Ninazu, Year: “Urbilum was destroyed.”   Š 46’ xiii’ = Š 47 5 2 /2 4 (Anonymous Nasa took.) mu-túm . iti- diri -ezem- d  Nin-a-zu,  mu~ Ki- maš ki  ù Hu-ur  5 -ti ki  ba-hul. ( left ) ud-2-kam. (MVN 13 768) the delivery . (Anonymous Nasa took.) The Additional  Month of Ezem-Ninazu, Year of Kimaš and Hurti were destroyed. On 2 nd . Š 47’ xiii' /5 =48 5 2 /5. Hermitage 3 183 iti-ezem- d  Nin-a-zu- min -kam, mu ús-sa Ki- maš ki  ù Hu-ur  5 -ti ki  ba-hul  (P211673 ) the Second  Month of ezem-Ninazu, Year after: “Kimaš and Hurti were destroyed.”   Š 47’ xiii'/8 =48 5 2 /8 (Hirose 073) ki En- diĝir  -mu, Ur-nigar šu~ ba -ti iti-ezem-  d  Nin-a-zu- min , mu ús-sa Ki- maš ki  ba-hul. from En- diĝir  mu, Ur-nigar took. The second  Month of ezem-  Ninazu, Year after: “Kimaš was destroyed. ”   At the first days of a new year, often the new year name could not be issued on time, so that the scribes had to use a temporary  ús-sa   year name: “Year: after (the last year name )”  until they received the new year name issued by the king. We also found the ussa year name was used from the Akiti month, which proves that it was the first month of a new year. The successive order of the cooks in the é-uz-ga supports the use of the Akiti Calendar during Š 45 -48. Table 2: The Akiti Month as the First Month in the ús-sa Temporary Year Names ús-sa  Urbilum Š 46’i’ = Š 46 vi/1   mu-túm. iti-á-ki-ti, [mu ús-sa] Ur-bí-lum ki   ba-hul. (left) ud-1-kam. (OIP 115 183, P123627) the deliveries. (Anonymous Nasa took.) Month of akiti, Year after : “Urbilum was destroyed.” (left): On 1 st . Š 46’ ús-sa   i’ = Š 46 vi/2 zi-ga ud-2-kam. iti-á-ki-ti, mu~ ús-sa Ur-bí-lum ki  ba-hul. (ArOr 25 560 14, P101869) the withdrawal (of Anonymous Nasa) on 2 nd . Month of Akiti, Year after : “Urbilum was destroyed.”   Š 46’  ús-sa   i’ = 46 vi/3 . , mu-túm. iti-á-ki-ti, mu ús-sa Ur-bí-lum ki   ba-hul. < (left) ud-3-kam.> (HUCA 29 69 1, P110433) the deliveries. (Anonymous Nasa took.) Month of akiti, Year after: “Urbilum was destroyed.” < On 3 rd .>    Kimaš Š 46’ i’ = Š 46 vi/6. zi-gaud-6-kam. iti~á-[ki]-ti, mu~ Ki- maš ki  [ù] Hu-ur  5 -ti ki  ba-hul. (OIP 115 242, P123612) the withdrawal (of Anonymous Nasa) on 6 th . Month of A[ki]ti, Year: “Kimaš [and] Hurti were destroyed.” Š 48’ mu-ús-sa- bi i’ = 6/6  iti-á-ki-ti, mu ús-sa  Ki- maš ki  ba-hul mu ús-sa-bi . (PDT 1, 426P125842) Month of á-ki- ti, Year: after “the year after Kimaš was destroyed.”   Š 48’  ús-sa-bi   i’ = 6/10.  iti-á-ki-ti, mu ús-sa Ki- maš ki  ba-hul, mu ús-sa-a-bi. (NYPL 99 = Eames G4P122635) Month of á-ki- ti, Year: after “year after Kimaš was destroyed.”   Š 48’ - ús-sa-bi   i’ = 6/13  iti-á-ki-ti, mu ús-sa Ki- maš ki  ba-hul [mu] ús-sa-bi. (MVN 13 060P116832) Month of á-ki-ti, Year of the second year after Kimaš was destroyed.”   Š 48’ i’ = 6/24 the new year name was declared in the month of the Akiti iti-á-ki-ti, mu Ha-ar- ši ki  Hu-ur 5 -ti ki  Ki- maš ki  ù ma-da-bi ba-hul . (CST 196 MVN 12, p. 103 P107708) Month of á-ki- ti, Year of Harši, Hurti, Kimaš and their territories were destroyed.” in one day.  Note that Š 46 used Year of ús-sa Urbilum   from Mašda Month to the 4 th  of the Akiti month, which was the year name of Š 47/1 -5 , and Year of Kimaš  was used from the 6 th   of Akiti month, which was Š 47/6 - 12 (=46’/i' -vii). For example, we have mu ús-sa   Urbilum ba-hul  in Š 46/2/27 (MVN 13 653), 46/4/5 (OIP 115 250), 46/5/4 (BPOA 7 2894) , 46/5/27(OIP 115 255)  and the last one, 5/29 (AA 77, P391636); then we have the Year of Kimaš from 46/6/6 (=46’/1/6, OIP 115 242), also 46/6/23 (=46’/1’/23 OIP 115 243). Unfortunately , now both BDTNS and CDLI treated months from Mašda to Ezem-  Ninazu of the Year of Kimaš as Š 46/1 -5 in the order of the Mašda Calendar, not as 46’/viii’=47/1 –    46’/xii’=47/v in the order in the Akiti Calendar. However, this wrong treatment would make the related months and years in confusion. For example, both databases assigned the year name of mu Kimaš ba -hul  on NYPL 348 to SH46/02/22, which mistakenly thought that this year name was known to the scriber from 46/2 on, but meanwhile, they also assigned the dating on TRU 293 and MVN 13 653 with another year name mu ús-sa Ur-bí-lum ki  ba-hul , to SH46/02/26 and SH46/02/27, which confused the year name of 45’/viii’ - xii’  (=46/1-5) which used year name of ús-sa Urbilum , with that of 46’/viii’ - xii’  (=47/1-5), which used the year name of Kimaš . We should be certain that all the scribes of Ur III  period only knew the cotemporary year of ús-sa ~Urbilum name during the 1 st  -5 th   months of Š 47 (47/1 - 5), and did not know the year of Kimaš, which was issued by Šulgi on the first days of the Akiti month of Š 47 (47/6), five month later. Another confusion caused by assigning the Mašda Calendar   to Š  45-48 is that of those zi-ga  and mu-túm  texts of the anonymous one (i.e. Nasa) from Š 40/1 to 47’/ii/=47/7/12 with these texts of ki~ Nasa ba-zi and mu-túm  Nasa  ì-dab 5   from Š 47’ii’=47/7/13 (ba - zi from 46’/ii’/=47/7/24 -25.) to AS 1/8, which can only achieved  by the Akiti Calendar. If we accepted the dating of the both databases in the Mašda Calendar, NYPL 348, a ki~ Nasa ba-zi text with month of    iti-zah x (ze x =ŠEŠ) -da-gu 7  and year name of mu Kimaš ba -hul  would be dated to SH46/02/22 before 47/7/13  –       24, the starting day of the ba-zi texts, which makes the ki~ Nasa  —  ta texts occur earlier more than one year, and mixes the texts of mu-túm / zi-ga  without official name with those of mu-túm  Nasa  ì-dab 5 /ki~ Nasa--ta ba-zi together. Hence, the using the Mašda Calendar to date the texts during Š 45 -48 will confuse the two complete distinguished phases of the Animal Center of Puzriš -Dagan under the Šulgi reign, but using the Akiti Calendar in this period will distinguish the two different  phases of the Center clearly.   2. Ba-mu and Ur- Šulgi , First Pair of Cooks : Šulgi 43/3/2 → 44/9/25   The first pair cooks were Ba-mu  and Ur- Šulgi , and both were mentioned in the early archive of institution of Šulgi -simti, queen, in Š 39 when the Animal Center started formally. Ur- Šulgi contributed 6 ducks (uz -tur) to the queen, which reminds us that the é-uz-ga   literally means “the House of Ducks and Milk” and Ba -mu issued for the allowance of the queen. Ur- Šulgi started to work in the é-uz-ga  from 43/3/3 and Ba-mu from 43/5/8. They worked together until 44/10/14 and Aya-kalla  jointed them. The animals distributed to the royal dining hall were 1 to 4 gazelle kids generally sent  by generals, 1 lamb or kid or the special young ewe ( u 8 ~sila 4 ~nú-a ) or young nanny-goat. Sometime, the cooks took over 1 or 2 lamb for the boil meat (uzu-a-bala) and about 11 fat lambs and kids as the allowance of the king ( sá-dug 4 ~lugal ). We are missing the texts recording cooks and the é-uz-ga  during 44/2  –  5.Ur- d Šul -gi-ra was  probably promoted to the cup-bearer on AS7/7/9 ( sagi maškim  OIP 121 458). Table: The First Pair of Cooks: Ur- Šulgi and Ba -mu: Š 43/ 3 /2→44/ 9/25 Dates Animals to E-uz-ga maškim /  ì-dab 5   Publication Dates Animals to Euzga muhaldim Publication Š  39/8/25 6 uz-tur mu-túm Šulgi -simtum from Ur- Šulgi  Á-  pi 5 -lí   –  a ì-dab 5  CST 048 40/7/*5-7  ba- úš  1 sila 4 -niga 1 udu, 1 máš -gal   ki~ Aš -ni- [u 18 ]--ta Ba-mu   [šu]  ba-ti in Tummal OIP 115 138  ? 39/0/0 112 fat ram sá-du 11 ~ Šulgi -simti ki Ba-mu --ta  Apiliya ì-dab 5 ,   Torino 1 034 Š 43/3 /02   4 maš -dà é-uz-ga, 2 maš -dà  Naram-ili  <no> Arád-mu   ASJ 15 139 05 Š 43/ 7/22 1 amar~ maš -dà Gov. Nippur Ur- d Šulgira   maškim  MVN 13 840 43/*3/*3  [ it]i- *u 5 - *bí-*gu 7   1 maš -dà é-uz-ga  from Atu Ur- d Šulgira maškim  zi-ga   CDLJ2006:2 2 Š 43/ xii/21 1 amar~ maš -dà Ba-mu [maškim]  TRU 255 Š 43/ 3/03 [1 maš -dà] from  Nir-ì-da- ĝ ál [Ur- d ]Šulgira   maškim  zi-ga- iti-u 5 -bí-gu 7 , BIN 3 493 Š 44/ i /(1-11) 6 sila 4 -niga 5 kir  11 -niga sá ! -du 11 Ba-mu ì-dab 5 , ki~Nalu  TCL 2 5608 Š 43/ 5/08 1 máš -babbar Ba-mu PDT 1 079 Š 44/ 6/17 1 sila 4 -ga zi-ga in Uruk Ur- d Šul -gi[ra*] OIP 115 371 Š 43/ 5/13 1 máš  é-uz-ga  from Utu-ul 4 -gal   Ur- d Šulgira   maškim  PDT 1 001 Š 44/ 7/21 [1 sila 4 -niga] Gov.  Nippur Ur- d Šulgira zi-ga PDT 1 119 Š 43/ 6/04 1 sila 4 -niga for uzu~ Ur- d Šul -gi[-ra* JCS 52 Š 44/ 9/04 4 máš -gal-niga Ba-mu maškim  CTNMC    é-uz-ga   a-b[ala ] ì-dab 5 ] 07 02 zi-ga é-uz-ga  fr. Ur-Sin 08 Š *43/ 6/05 1 u 8 -sila 4 ~nu-ná Ur- d Šulgira   MVN 15 051 Š 44/ 9/15 zi-ga 1 sila 4  from en-Inanna Ba-mu maškim, zi-ga~0 TRU 258 Š 43/ 6/28 1 máš UŠ - i3-si isin 2  Ur- d Šulgira   PDT 1 069 Š 44/ 9/17 1 sila 4 -ga * Ba (Arád?)- mu  BPOA 7 2807 Š 43/ 6/29 1 f  áš -gàr-niga Gov.  Nippur Ur- d Šulgira   maškim  BIN 3 489 Š* 44/9/25 1 sila 4 -ga Ba-mu maškim  zi-ga ki~ Nalu OIP 115 377 Š 43/ 7/09 zi-ga 1 sila 4 -niga Gov.  Nippur Ur- d Šulgira   maškim   OIP 115 224 44/9/(1-30) 28 fat rams sá ! - du 11 ~   ku 5 -rá ki~ Ba-mu --ta mu- túm Nasa ì-dab 5  SumTemDocs. 05 3. The First Pair of Cooks: Ba-mu and Ur- Šulgi -ra, with Aya-kalla as Assistant of Ba-mu: Š 44 /10/15 → Š 4 5/10/26 →45/12   Aya-kalla came to the é-uz-ga  hall on 44/10/15 and might work as the assistant of Ba-mu with Ur- Šulgi. After Bamu took the lamb of the é-uz-ga on 44/10/29, he left his job to Aya-kalla and only worked on 45/4/19, and on 45/9/15 he returned to the office. Only one month later, after 45/10/26, he formally transferred his cook job in é-uz-ga  to Aya-kalla, while the last workday of Ur- Šulgi , his partner, was 45/9/2. Then we are missing the information of é-uz-ga  for 2 months (45/11-12/0), during which, the first pair of cooks of é-uz-ga  passed the cook jobs to the second pair: Aya-kalla and Dayyani, later with an Akkadian name. In the zi-ga texts, the cooks worked as royal deputy (maškim) to deal the animals delivered from nobles, but they took over (  ì-dab 5 ) Date of Text Animal to Euzga muhaldim maškim /cook as deputy Publication Simur um Š  44/10/15 1 udu-niga from Ṣiluš -Dagan Aya-kalla   maškim ( on behalf of Ba-mu?) zi-ga  MVN 13 121 *Simur um Š  *44/10/29 1 sila 4  Ili-miti  é-uz-ga   Ba-mu   maškim  zi-ga-0 CST 080 Simur um Š  44/11/29 1 sila 4 -ga  zi-ga  ki~ Nalu Aya-kalla  (on behalf of Ba-mu?) PDT 2 1169 Simur um Š  44/12/18 [1 sila 4 -niga é-uz-ga  from xxx] Ur- d Šulgira   maškim  SACT 1 127 Simur um Š  44/12/28 zi-ga 1 sila 4 -niga Gov. Nippur Ur- d Šulgira   maškim  ASh m.1923-426 Simur um Š  44/12-diri/29 1 sila 4 -niga é-uz-ga  Ur- d Šulgira  zi-ga ki~ Nalu OIP 115 381 ús-sa Simurum Š 44' /viii'/=45/1/18 1 lulim-nitá-niga Ur- Šulgi zi-ga ki~  Ahuni  SACT 1 136 Simur um Š  44'/ viii'- min =*45/1/25 [1 sila 4 -ga] Nir-ì-da- ĝ ál Ur- Šulgira SET 049 Simur um Š  44 '/viii'- min /= 45/1/28 1 sila 4 -ga (not 44/1/28) Ur- d Šulgira , zi-ga  ki~ Nalu OIP 115 383 Simur um Š  44' / ix’ - min  =*45/2/11 1 udu from Šu -Enlil Ur- d Šulgira  OIP 115 232 Simur um Š   44’/x’ - min =*45/3/9 (not 44/3/9) 1 sila 4 -ga é-uz-ga Aya-kalla  (on behalf of Ba-mu?)  zi-ga ki~ Nalu  ArOr 25 560 16 Simurum Š 44’/x’ - min =45/3/24 1 udu-niga  é-uz-ga < Ur- d Šulgira ? maškim>  Nik. 2 530 Simurum Š   44’/xi’ - min  =45/4/19 1 sila 4   é-uz-ga from dam- Šu - Šamaš  , Ba-mu   maškim zi-ga Hermitage 3 133 Simur um Š   44’/xi’ - min  =45/4/24 1 máš -gal-niga é-uz-ga Aya-kalla   maškim (on behalf of Ba -mu) CST 067 Simurum Š   44’/xi i ’ - min  =45/5/24 1 amar- maš -dà, é-uz-ga, from Arád-mu, Ba-mu   maškim zi -ga Hermitage 3 135 P211514 Simurum   Š 44’/xi i ’ - min  =45/5/0   1 f  áš -gàr ki~ Ur-kug-nun-na-ta Lugal-si-sá muhaldim lú~Nin 9 -kal-la took, seal: muhaldim~lugal  CTMMA 1 11a+b
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