Science at the amazonian coast: Scientific production and training of human resources from the Coastal Studies Program – Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi

The scientific production and the training of human resources in Brazil have been investigated in many knowledge areas to subsidize their scientific, educational and technological development. To disseminate the intellectual and training of human

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  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-5, Issue-9, Sept- 2018]  ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)   Page  | 336   Science at the amazonian coast: Scientific production and training of human resources from the Coastal Studies Program  –   Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi Ana Yoshi Harada¹, Lourdes de Fátima Gonçalves Furtado²; Maria Luiza Videira Marceliano³ 1 PhD in Biological Sciences, Entomology, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi/Zoology Coordination/Invertebrate sector, 2 PhD in Social Science (Social Anthropology), Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi/Human Sciences Coordination, e-mail: 3 PhD in Biological Sciences, Zoology, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi/ Zoology Coordination/Ornithology sector,  Abstract   —    The scientific production and the training of human resources in Brazil have been investigated in many knowledge areas to subsidize their scientific, educational and technological development. To disseminate the intellectual and training of human resources contribution of the Coastal Studies Program (PEC/MPEG) at the coastal Amazon, in its timeline (1997 to 2016), it was compiled data of Curriculum Lattes of the  PEC researcher and of data banks of institutional  Programs of training from the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG) agreed or not with others teaching and research institutions from Belém do Pará that, were typed and analyzed in the EXCELL 10.0 software. The  production of 434 published articles (230 in the  Biological, Health and Agricultural Sciences Area, 98 in  Earth Sciences and Engineering and 76 in Human and Social Sciences) and of 427 training of human resources (128 in the Biological, Health and Agricultural Sciences  Area, 128 in Earth Sciences and Engineering and 100 in  Human and Social Sciences) mapping quantitatively the intellectual and training of human resources production in a multidisciplinary character, exposing the contribution of the program in its timeline, as also points out gaps and advances that can subsidize the academic and social demands fulfilling its mission.   Keywords  —   Amazon, coastal zone, knowledge  production, human resources, scientific research. I.   INTRODUCTION 1.1 The timeline in the Coastal Studies Program (PEC) from the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG). The year of 1996 followed full of events,  between them highlighted one, where the coastal zone was the focus. A researchers group from Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG) met in Salinas, City of Salinópolis, at the Pará Coastal Zone in the Tropical Coastal Ecosystems Studies Program (ECOLAB)  –     Franco-Brazilian Cooperation International Program   “an international and multidisciplinary network that develop integrate scientific studies at amazonian coastal ecosystems” (Mendes & Prost, 2001). The event has been organized and sealed by MPEG with institutional contributions, with the participation of many scientific institutions, including the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Other event in 1996, happened in this year: a workshop of the  Amazon Mangrove’ Program  (MADAM- Mangrove, Dynamics and Management), at Bragança, embryo of the idea of a specific Program creation inside of MPEG about Pará and its coastal zone, considering the existing critical mass and the accumulated experiences in the issues raised in the two cited events, from the various Scientific Departments  –   nowadays, Scientific Coordinations. Inspired in what they saw and heard during that workshop, a researchers group  –   integrated by Lourdes de Fátima Gonçalves Furtado, José Francisco Berrêdo Reis da Silva, Amilcar Carvalho Mendes, Cristina do Socorro Fernandes de Senna, Helena Doris Quaresma - , met in the lunch break, during the MADAM event, conjectured informally the idea of a studies program at the paraense coast developed by MPEG. That group should have its own identity seizing the individual experiences accumulated in situ , in a  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-5, Issue-9, Sept- 2018]  ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)   Page  | 337   multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach,  preferably, to put their perceptions about the nature, characteristics and problems related to that ecosystem of the amazonian biome. Indeed, the idea resulted: and, in 1997 the Coastal Studies Institutional Program (PEC) was created with the leadership of Maria Thereza da Costa Prost. This Program follows a chronological trajectory of investments and events checked in Borges et al., (2016). In this chronology are emphasized categories of analysis,  performance evaluation and knowledge’s production dynamic of the involved researchers, related to the coastal zone of the Brazilian Amazon. In the timeline between 1997 and 2016 the following facts assume relevancy in the cited indicative categories: (a) the insertion of analysis in the Social Sciences field, particularly of the Anthropology, as science that aims to know the relationship between the man and the nature, or in other words: between the social groups and the nature, or even,  between nature and culture. Science that indicates and decodes classifications  of the real (natural resources) and of the immaterial (representations about the concrete world), proposed by the social groups, and obviously, in that context they indicate the inherent logics to that human groups related to the territory that they inhabit, use and handle. This data means that besides their purely methodological and objective practices, the Anthropology has as its priority to reach the heart of the issues through the  subjectivity  as a research technic  –   to approach the community (for example) from the perception of the subject, of the social actors in the presence. (b) the training of human resources to the research, from the aggregation of college students in the level of undergraduate and postgraduate, through internships with scholarships of the PIBIC or of the postgraduate programs linked to them. (c) aggregation of students from up-country with CNPq scholarship through RENAS Project (Natural Resources and Social Anthropology) and, at the same time, of people from the worked about communities to integrate research actions in real time. Of that process resulted the interaction research-community, relevant factor in the fieldwork performance of the teams. 1.2 Projects and the guiding research lines of the project. Researches were developed by researchers from the Departments of Ecology, Botanic, Human Sciences and Museology. In this multidisciplinary context, it was elaborated the referred project, oriented by research lines in Human Sciences  –   Anthropology, Archeology, Communication and Museology; Biological, Health and Agricultural Sciences  –   Botanic and Zoology and Earth Sciences and Engineering. Related to the Human and Social Sciences of the RENAS Project at the fishing populations scope, previous to PEC, with studies in the coastal, estuarine and river amazonian areas, it was welcomed as one of the Anchor Projects, as was been classified at that time by Dr. Maria Thereza Prost, PEC coordinator. The anthropological perspective glimpses the social organization, the history and the people culture that studies, in its environment ( in situ  and in vitro ), their relationship with the natural resources and the  biodiversity in their social representations that involve the social landscape, their relations and process of human occupation and mobility (migrations and internal inflows) in the long term history. Exposing in this way: cultural matrices of social groups or of the focused region, the identity and the otherness  –   their corollary -, the kinship, crony and neighborhood relations, the classifications of the lived world at the plan of its experiences and logics of  belonging, appropriation, use of the natural resources and  belonging to territories. Later, in the PEC scope emerged the  Paraense  Mangroves: Natural researchers, local uses and indicators for the sustainability  Project financed by Das Leibniz-Zentrum für Marine Tropenforschung- ZMT/German, and with financial support of the Science and Technology Fund of the Estate of Pará (FUNTEC) and more, the technic and scientific support of the Institut de Recherche et Dévelopement (IRD-Cayenne) and of the CAPES-COFECUB Program, (developed by MPEG), Federal University of Pará (UFPA) and the Paris VII and Paris XI University (IBID). In the FUNTEC Project the RENAS contributed to field works in different subjects, particularly in the social-anthropological characterization of the studied sites at the regions of the coastal cities from Marapanim and São Caetano de Odivelas. Along the timeline, in the pointed out period,  between other studies realized it highlights Mendes & Prost (2001), Furtado (2002), Souza-Filho et al., (2005), Furtado et al., (2012), Prost & Mendes (2013), Lins et al., (2014), Carmo et al., (2014), Furtado et al., (2015) and Borges et al. (2016). 1.3 The PEC epistemological relevance The PEC Program is and will be a crucial institutional program for the comprehension of the social dynamics to what the various ecosystems of the amazonian biome and the involved human occupation areas are subdued, right by the multidisciplinary methodology that it uses. It is necessary to internalize a notion: the one who conceives that the scientific fields,  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-5, Issue-9, Sept- 2018]  ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)   Page  | 338    presents in it, does not be fragmented into monoblocs or following in a parallel way  –   biological sciences and social sciences, as in a previous occasion -, but in constant dialogical and interpretative relationship, if we want to have epistemological and more consistent results. This dialogical experience, how we see, gives sustentation to the teams in their respective field  performance, to fortify the dialogues between research and community, the intercultural dialogues between their  partners  and other research groups from the amazonian region, from Brazil and from the Exchange. Into this scope, the experience of the Anthropology team integrate to PEC, through the Anchor Project RENAS, has been contributed to diversify the knowledges related to the Brazilian coastal zone,  particularly to the Brazilian North Coast. The extension of these experiences at the amazonian seaboard, left this anchor project team to other latitudes, as to Portugal and Africa in Moçambique seaboards, resulting in the book Olhares cruzados sobre os povos litorâneos de comunidades dos países de língua  portuguêsa: Percepção acerca do uso e gestão de territórios em comunidades haliêuticas no Brasil,  Moçambique e Portugal  . Published by MCTI/Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi and launched in 2015. Subjects as millenarian occupation of this region fishing areas; social organization and change; social conflicts; traditional fishing technologies; fishing agreements; environmental protection areas  –   particularly the areas of the Marine Extractive reserves of Marapanim, Mãe Grande de Curuçá, Mocapajuba in São Caetano de Odivelas, Quatipuru-Primavera, Marauanazese do Pesqueiro, both from Soure, inscribe yourselves into their  previous work schedule, participate of the interest in the anthropological and of the natural sciences perspective. Among other Anchor Projects developed in the PEC/MPEG scope it highlights: Baía de Guajará Socioenvironmental Diagnostic, developed in the scope of the North-Northeast Environmental Monitoring of the Risk areas to Petroleum and its Derivative Spills Cooperative Network (PETRORISCO); Amazonian Coastal Ecosystems: ecological characteristics, social challenges and sustainable development; Potential Environmental Impacts of Petroleum and Derivative Transport in the Amazonian Coastal Zone (PIATAM mar I e II); Use and Appropriation of the Coastal Resources (RECOS); Preservation and diffusion of the photograph collection about amazonian coastal ecosystems; Fluvial Environmental Study in the Amazon: Hydro geochemical, climate and of vegetal philosophy implications; Economical valuation of the direct and indirect uses of the mangrove ecosystem in São Caetano de Odivelas-Pará and Botanical Research interdisciplinary Network in Amazon, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga and Cerrado that were condemned by researchers of the Botanical and Earth Sciences Coordinations and, developed in the 1997-2016  period. These projects were executed along the north coast of Brazil, both on land and in water (estuary and sea) and, had the collaboration of researchers from many state and national institutions, always with the interdisciplinary and of training of human resources vision. The results of these important actuations are highlighted in the items result and discussion. The PEC is a program that involves studies whose spectrum favor the comprehension of the ocean-continent line, that is, it includes objectively in course studies, other already performed and in perspective that can serve as an analytical base for regional evaluations. In a time, it appreciates an area  –   the coastal or maritime area -, that has links with the waters and interior territories  –   with the forest  –   a link between Green  Amazon and the Blue Amazon . Both are inseparable in the scientific conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to appreciate this dimension. Theoretically in this case, they can be manifested (a) by the goods and services provides  by the nature, especially by the flows and water pulses of the big, medium and small rivers (between the sea and the coast; between the sea and the estuaries, between the estuaries and the existent big and medium hydrographic  basins). Studies in this direction, supposedly yield good fruit. In the same way they could be pointed out by the social mobility flow and pulse, those transits particularly along this line, charging its sociocultural ethos  through the human occupation migratory processes, in the circuit of this line or of this ocean-continent axis. In this sense it is intended to disseminate the intellectual and of training of human resources contribution of the coastal studies Program (PEC/MPEG) at the north coast of Brazil, along 19 years (1997 a 2016), exposing by a quantitative form its actuation in the timeline. II.   METHODS The data were compiled from the search of the Curriculum Lattes (CVLattes) of 37 researchers involved in the program, of databases of the postgraduate programs in partnership with the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (Biological Sciences Postgraduate Program  –   Tropical Botanic in agreement with the Federal Rural University of Amazon - PPGBOT/UFRA/MPEG; Environmental Sciences Postgraduate Program in agreement with the Universities: Federal Rural of Amazon, Federal of Pará and the Farming Researches Enterprise - EMBRAPA/CPATU; Human, Social Sciences and Anthropology Postgraduate Program (PPGSA) and in Zoology (PPGZOOL) in agreement with the Federal  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-5, Issue-9, Sept- 2018]  ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)   Page  | 339   University of Pará (UFPA), and of institutional programs from the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi: Scientific Research Scholarship Program (PIBIC) and Institutional Training Program (PCI). 2.1 Consulted literature A priori a search was performed about the items related to the intellectual and of Training of Human Resources production in CNPq (National Council of Scientific and Technologic Development) Curriculum Lattes from members of PEC/MPEG as also in databases of institutional and/or agreed Programs. Thus, 434  published articles about the north coast of Brazil (marine, coastal and estuary) were compiled, of Curriculum Lattes, of 37 researchers’ members of (PEC/MPEG), in scientific  journal s, books and book’s chapters and in scientific events reports, in the idioms: Portuguese, English, Spanish and French, in the period of 1997 to 2016. The intellectual and training of human resources production of the PEC members were grouped  by production type, concentration areas and activity sector in the time and in the space. The publications involve ecosystem functions and services and/or socioeconomic and cultural benefits. However, items as: executed projects, maps, CD-ROM, research reports, events held and others, that were not analyzed here, can also, highlight the PEC actions to the north coast of Brazil development giving fundamental bases to the environmental diagnostic, public  politics proposes, conservation, sustainable use and management of the Amazonian seaboard. For the discussion available publications in the subject’s literature were consulted. 2.2 Selection criteria To de intellectual and of training of human resources production obtained from the 37 Curriculum Lattes of the PEC/MPEG members, available at the CNPq Plataforma Lattes were selected: scientific articles, books,  book’s chapters, full articles and abstracts in scientific events reports, articles of popularization of the science, databases of the institutional training Programs (PIBIC/CNPq/MPEG - Scientific Research Scholarship Program e PCI - Institutional Training Program) and of Zoology Postgraduate Programs (PPGZool) UFPA/MPEG, Biological Sciences  –   Tropical Botanic (PPGBot) MPEG/UFRA, Environmental Sciences UFPA/MPEG/EMBRAPA (PPGCA) and of Social Sciences and Anthropology (PPGCSA) UFPA/MPEG that were created and implemented during the evaluated  period. 2.3 Collected data The collected data were organized by the following way: 1) Production type (scientific article,  books, book’s chapters, articles in events reports (full and abstracts), articles of popularization of the science and by education level (PhD, Master, Specialization and Undergraduate); 2) Knowledge areas of PEC actuation: a) Biological, Health and Agricultural Sciences (CBSA); b) Earth Exact Sciences and Engineering (CTE); c) Human and Social Sciences (CHS); d) Interdisciplinary (Environmental Education, others); 3) Sectors of Institution Activities  –   Coordinations: Botanic (CBO), Earth Sciences and Ecology (CCTE), Human Sciences (CCH), Zoology (CZO) and Communication and Extension (CCE); 4) Degree per level of training of human resources: PhD  –   D, Master  –   M, Specialization and Undergraduate (Scientific Research and Thesis (TCC  –   undergraduate conclusion issue), involving the Institutional Programs: a) the postgraduate  –   Zoology (PPGZool), Tropical Botanic (PPGBot), Environmental Sciences (PPGCA) and, Social Sciences and Anthropology (PPGCSA); b) others  –   PCI (post-doctoral and others and PIBIC (Scientific Research Scholarship Program). 2.4 Conceptual structure of the data To adjust the performance indicators of the PEC, the production were organized using the following disposition: a) Ordination of the intellectual production informations in the knowledge areas stablished by the  National Council of Scientific and Technologic Development (CNPq) from Brazil, followed by the ordination by research activities sectors of the institution in the period between 1997 to 2016, using as an indicator the CAPES - Qualis (A (1, 2), B (1, 2, 3, 4 e 5), C and SC (without classification). This production also was grouped in authorship and co-authorship and by collaboration type (departmental, institutional and interinstitutional); b) Organization per training of human resources level, knowledge areas and activity sector in the Institution in the period (1997 a 2015). The main reason for this information bank was to show the actuation indicators in  perspectives, objectives and multiple scales of the PEC contribution for the development of the Amazonian coast. 2.5 Data analysis. The data were compiled and analyzed in EXCELL spreadsheets version 10.0, producing dynamic tables and graphics. III.   RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The intellectual contribution and the training of human resources of the PEC/MPEG approach ecosystem  International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-5, Issue-9, Sept- 2018]  ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)   Page  | 340   services, social and sociocultural giving basic information’s to s ome coastal areas as also reflects the availability of resources and people available to actuate at the Amazonian coast. 3.1 Contribution of the Coastal Studies Program (PEC) from the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG) to the development of the North Coast of Brazil. 3.1.1 Intellectual contribution 3.1.2 Diffusion and Popularization of Science 3.1.3 Training of Human Resources. 3.1.1 Intellectual contribution. The intellectual contribution of 37 researchers of the Coastal Studies Program   (PEC) from the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG), during 19 years of existence, was of 434 publications: 50 articles into congress reports, 84 abstracts in congresses, 165 articles in indexed scientific journals, 94 book’s chapters, 23  books and 18 articles of popularization of the science, focused accord to the demands, opportunities and people availability. It is important to emphasize that more 30% of these researchers have less than five years actuating in the PEC. Besides, this contribution seems simple in quantitative terms, but it is very relevant qualitatively to subsidize important studies of environmental impact and  proposes of use, management and conservation for the development of north coast of Brazil (Fig. 1).  Fig. 1: Coastal Studies Program of Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (PEC/MPEG) contribution to the development of the  North Coast of Brazil, 1997-2016 As one of the structuring programs from the Museu Goeldi (MPEG), the Coastal Studies Program (PEC), since its creation, has been engaged to develop multidisciplinary activities involving the participation of different knowledge areas, showing in small, medium and  big scale the expertise of its members, to understand  better the Amazonian coastal environments. On the other hand, the scarcity of human and financial resources has  been provided to the program considerable fluctuations in its academic-scientific production along its existence. These factors lead to a reflection about the limitations and  possibilities that affected the performance of the program. Production per knowledge area During 19 years, the PEC produced 434 technic-scientific articles with more emphasis in the Biological, Health and Agricultural Sciences Area (230 articles), followed by the Earth Sciences and Engineering (98 articles) and by the Human and Social Sciences (76 articles). From this production (434 articles), 165 (38,02%) were published in scientific journal, 23 (5,3%) in books, 94 (21,66%) in book’s chapters, 50 (11,53%) in congresses reports, 84 (19,35%) in abstracts in congresses and 18 (4,15%) in journals of popularization of the science. According to Café & Bräscher (2008), Silva (2013) and Freitas (2017) to measure the scientific knowledge production one should use measures that show clearly the individual production, of groups or institutions. Thus, complying with the Lotka Law, the scientific production of the program is related to the number and time of researchers’ actuation in the program. When evaluated in the knowledge areas, the highest  production occurred in the Biological, Health and Agricultural Sciences area (53%), followed by 22,5% in
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