”Mutually Antagonistic Philhellenes. Edward Capps and Bert Hodge Hill at the American School of Classical Studies and Athens College,’’ pp. 67-99

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Between 1918 and 1930, Edward Capps and Bert Hodge Hill had an immeasurable impact on both the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and Athens College. At the former they fought for administrative and intellectual dominance, with Capps the

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   Hesperia  The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athensspecial issue volume 82.1 (2013) Philhellenism, Philanthropy, or Political Convenience?  American  Archaeology in Greece Copyright © The American School of Classical Studies at  Athens, srcinally published in Hesperia   82 (2013), pp. 67–99.  This offprint is supplied for personal, non-commercial use only.  The definitive electronic version of the article can be found at <http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2972/hesperia.82.1.0067>.  American School of Classical Studies at Athens 2013  hesperia  Tracey Cullen, EditorEditorial Advisory Board Carla M. Antonaccio,  Duke University   Angelos Chaniotis,  Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton  Jack L. Davis,  University of Cincinnati   A. A. Donohue,  Bryn Mawr College   Jan Driessen,  Université Catholique de Louvain Marian H. Feldman,  University of California, Berkeley  Gloria Ferrari Pinney,  Harvard University  Sherry C. Fox,  American School of Classical Studies at Athens   Thomas W. Gallant,  University of California, San Diego Sharon E. J. Gerstel,  University of California, Los Angeles  Guy M. Hedreen,  Williams College  Carol C. Mattusch,  George Mason University   Alexander Mazarakis Ainian,  University of Thessaly at Volos  Lisa C. Nevett,  University of Michigan  Josiah Ober,  Stanford University   John K. Papadopoulos,  University of California, Los Angeles   Jeremy B. Rutter,  Dartmouth College   A. J. S. Spawforth,  Newcastle University  Monika Trümper,  University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Hesperia is published quarterly by the American School of Classical Studies at  Athens. Founded in 1932 to publish the work of the American School, the jour-nal now welcomes submissions from all scholars working in the fields of Greek archaeology, art, epigraphy, history, materials science, ethnography, and literature, from earliest prehistoric times onward. Hesperia is a refereed journal, indexed in   Abstracts in Anthropology, L’Année philologique, Art Index, Arts and Humanities Citation Index, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, Current Contents, IBZ:  Internationale Bibliographie der geistes- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Zeitschriften- literatur, Numismatic Literature, Periodicals Contents Index, Russian Academy of Sciences Bibliographies, and TOCS-IN  . The journal is also a member of CrossRef.  The American School of Classical Studies at Athens   is a research and teaching institution dedicated to the advanced study of the archaeology, art, history, philosophy, language, and literature of Greece and the Greek world. Established in 1881 by a consortium of nine American universities, the School now serves graduate students and scholars from more than 180 affiliated colleges and uni- versities, acting as a base for research and study in Greece. As part of its mission, the School directs on going excavations in the Athenian Agora and at Corinth and sponsors all other American-led excavations and surveys on Greek soil. It is the official link between American archaeologists and classicists and the Ar-chaeological Service of the Greek Ministry of Culture and, as such, is dedicated to the wise management of cultural resources and to the dissemination of knowl-edge of the classical world. Inquiries about programs or membership in the School should be sent to the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 6–8 Charlton Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08540-5232.  © The American School of Classical Studies at Athens hesperia 82 (2013) Pages 67–99 Mutually Antagonistic Philhellenes Edward Capps and Bert Hodge Hill at the  American School of Classical Studies and Athens College  ABSTRACT Between 1918 and 1930, Edward Capps and Bert Hodge Hill had an immea-surable impact on both the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and Athens College. At the former they fought for administrative and intel-lectual dominance, with Capps the undisputed winner by 1926. But in the process that led to the founding of the latter in 1925, the two men assisted Stephanos Delta and Emmanuel Benaki in realizing their dream of a Greek private school modeled on Robert College in Istanbul. At Athens College the philhellenism and philanthropic spirit of Capps and Hill carried the day over their antagonistic relationship at the American School. INTRODUCTION  The connections between some members of the American School of Clas- sical Studies at Athens (hereafter, “the School” or ASCSA) in the 1920s and the 1930s and the founding in 1925 of Athens College (the Greek private school of the Hellenic-American Educational Foundation, or HAEF; hereafter, “the College”) and its early years are not obscure facts at either institution. 1  I would argue, however, that besides the well-noted activities 1. This article is based on a paper presented at the Philhellenism work-shop at the American School (Athens, May 18, 2010); a longer version was given to the Friends of the Historical  Archive of the Greek Archaeological Service on May 18, 2011. The article has benefited greatly from the insightful interventions of Christopher McClinton and William H. Rupp. William McGrew’s probing ques- tions have stimulated me to elucidate my ideas in more detail. Dimitris Kara-manos’s discerning eye caught many mistakes, misspellings, and infelicitous phrasings. He also offered support and materials from his personal ar- chive relating to Athens College. Jack Davis’s sharing of material unknown to me as well as a suggestion that helped to fill a gap in my narrative  was received with gratitude. I greatly appreciate Robert Pounder’s trust in allowing me to read and to refer to his unpublished research. Natalia Vogeikoff-Brogan’s friendly encour- agement, sharing of sources, and sup-plying of images of the central players and buildings in my paper are a debt that will be difficult to repay. The research of Eleftheria Daleziou and Betsey Robinson on other aspects of Hill’s philanthropy in Greece have aided my understanding of his work for Athens College. Metaxia Tsipo- poulou’s warm support was there as always. The comments of the three anonymous Hesperia   reviewers encour-aged me to explain other facets of the topic, as well as the broader context of philhellenism and philanthropy. I have attempted to address their concerns  within the limitations of the extant sources available in Athens.  david w. rupp68 of Edward Capps (Fig. 1) at both institutions, the other American classi- cists, archaeologists, and academics who played roles in the College’s initial development are much less well known.In addition to Capps, there were other Americans at the School as  well as in American academia, public life, and business who participated in efforts to help Greece in its times of need at the end of World War I and again in the aftermath of the disastrous Asia Minor campaign, and who also supported the fledgling College. Table 1 emphasizes the significant and often overlapping roles that Capps and Bert Hodge Hill (Fig. 2), as  well as other figures discussed in this article, had in Athens College and other institutions with interests in Greece.Capps and Hill, antagonists throughout their careers, are the protago-nists of this article. Jack Davis’s revisionistic studies on the development of the School during the two decades after World War I have already revealed that these two men fought for control of the administration of the School in Athens, as well as for the power to determine the intellectual direction that the School would follow. 2  Capps, “the Second Founder” of the School, 3   was the acknowledged winner of these battles, and Hill the apparent loser. 4  At the College (Fig. 3), Capps is publicly revered for his instrumental role in creating the American Board of Trustees of Athens College in Greece (hereafter, “Board of Trustees”) in 1927. A large marble dedicatory plaque with his portrait in relief by the sculptor John Pappas (Fig. 4) is displayed inside a prominent building that bears Capps’s name (Fig. 5) on the Psychiko campus. 5  The long inscription honors his many contributions. 2. Davis 2003, 2007, and this vol-ume; Davis and Gorogianni 2005.3. Lord 1950, p. 16.4. It is ironic that both men are commemorated by bronze honorific relief plaques on either side of the lobby of the School’s main administrative building, and that Hill was later given the title of “director emeritus.”5. Davis 1992, pp. 386–387. Figure 1 (left) . Edward Capps. Photo ASCSA Blegen Library Archives Figure 2 (right). Bert Hodge Hill. Photo ASCSA Bert H. Hill Papers, Blegen Library Archives Figure 3 (opposite) . View of Benaki Hall and the surrounding Psychiko campus of Athens College, ca. 1934. Photo ASCSA Dorothy Burr Thompson Photographic Collection, Blegen Library  Archives  mutually antagonistic philhellenes69   TABLE 1. SOCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL NETWORKS OF INDIVIDUALS  ASSOCIATED WITH ATHENS COLLEGE, 1918–1930     A   m   e   r    i   c   a   n    S   c    h   o   o    l   o    f    C    l   a   s   s    i   c   a    l    S   t   u    d    i   e   s   a   t    A   t    h   e   n   s    R   o    b   e   r   t    C   o    l    l   e   g   e    A   m   e   r    i   c   a   n    R   e    d    C   r   o   s   s    M    i   s   s    i   o   n   t   o    G   r   e   e   c   e    N   e   a   r    E   a   s   t    R   e    l    i   e    f    N   e   a   r    E   a   s   t    C   o    l    l   e   g   e    A   s   s   o   c    i   a   t    i   o   n    A   m   e   r    i   c   a   n    F   r    i   e   n    d   s   o    f    G   r   e   e   c   e    R   e    f   u   g   e   e    S   e   t   t    l   e   m   e   n   t    C   o   m   m    i   s   s    i   o   n    U   n    i   t   e    d    S   t   a   t   e   s    G   o   v   e   r   n   m   e   n   t    S   t   e   p    h   a   n   o   s    D   e    l   t   a    E   m   m   a   n   u   e    l    B   e   n   a    k    i    E    l   e    f   t    h   e   r    i   o   s    V   e   n    i   z   e    l   o   s Edward Capps  x x x x x x x x x  Bert Hodge Hill  x x x x x x  Homer W. Davis  x x x x  Henry B. Dewing  x x x x x x x x  Harold C. Jaquith  x x x x   Albert W. Staub  x x  Carl W. Blegen  x x x x x x  Charles P. Howland  x x x x x  Shaded columns indicate institutions and individuals with connections to both Capps and Hill.
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