Municipal Solid Waste Management of Paradeep City in Odisha – A Review

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Solid Waste Management is an integral part of the Environment Management of each city. Management of burgeoning solid wastes has become a critical issue for almost all the major cities in India . Rapid industrialization and Urbanization at Port city

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  Himansu Sekhar Patra et. al  . /   International Journal of Modern Sciences and Engineering Technology (IJMSET)  ISSN 2349-3755; Available at https://www.ijmset.comVolume 2, Issue 3, 2015, pp.1-9 © IJMSET-Advanced Scientific Research Forum (ASRF), All Rights Reserved “IJMSET promotes research nature, Research nature enriches the world’s future 1 Municipal Solid Waste Management of Paradeep City in Odisha –   A Review ABSTRACT Solid Waste Management is an integral part of the Environment Management of each city. Management of burgeoning solid wastes has become a critical issue for almost all the major cities in India . Rapid industrialization and Urbanization at Port city Paradeep has led to drastic increase in municipal solid waste inquantity and quality wise and its management has became one of the key environmental concerns in Odisha. Poor Solid Waste Management system due to lack of suitable facilities (equipment and infrastructure),underestimation of waste generation rates, inadequate management, poor technical skills, improper bincollection and route planning and overall a strong will power are the major problem that is observed at  Paradeep municipality. This has lead to affecting the surrounding environment thus affecting the health of human and animal living in nearby areas . The present paper gives an overview of current solid wastemanagement practices in Paradeep municipality, Odisha and suggests solutions to these problems. The study finds out that in-adequate bin capacity, man-power and equipments is contributing to the inefficiency of solid waste management system. Though the responsibility of solid waste management remains primarily with themunicipality bodies, however the response of other stake holders like the industrial houses situated at this areais quite poor. The overall objective is to create an efficient, reliable and holistic system for management of municipal solid waste, so as to achieve a cleaner environment and improve the quality of life.  Key words:- Source segregation, 3R technology, Aerobic composting, Sanitary landfill  1.INTRODUCTION SWM has emerged as a major concern to the general public, local authorities, and businesscommunities in cities and towns across India. The issue is exacerbating in urban areas due to rapid population growth, changing life style coupled by an economic boom that encourages theconsumption of goods and hence generating large amount of waste. The quantity of Municipal SolidWaste (MSW) has also increased tremendously withimproved life style and social status of the populations in urban centers (Sharholy, M. etal 2007). The management of MSW is going through acritical phase, due to the unavailability of suitable facilities to treat and dispose of the larger amountof MSW generated daily in metropolitan cities. The improper management of solid waste has come back with vengeance gravely affecting the public health and degrading the environment.(Bisoi, L.k.2006 ). In India most of the municipalities lack an integrated approach to waste management. Theefforts are largely uncoordinated and sporadic. In many cases some semblance of disposal is practiced because of the pressure of the authorities (Samantsinghar & Dash, 2008) . Further the situation of solid waste management has been worsening due to space constraint (Idris, A. etal, 2004) , poor technical skill, limited financial resources, lack of political will power and civic awareness (Joseph, Himansu Sekhar Patra 1 Researcher in Environmental sciencehimansupat@gmail.com Amarendra Harichandan 2 Lecturer in Environmental scienceKonark Institute of science & Technology  Himansu Sekhar Patra et. al  . /   International Journal of Modern Sciences and Engineering Technology (IJMSET)  ISSN 2349-3755; Available at https://www.ijmset.comVolume 2, Issue 3, 2015, pp.1-9 © IJMSET-Advanced Scientific Research Forum (ASRF), All Rights Reserved “IJMSET promotes research nature, Research nature enriches the world’s future 2 K., 2002) . As a result more than 90% of the M.S.W generated in India is directly disposed on land inan unsatisfactory manner (Das etal 1998) and issues related to the disposal have become challengingas more land is needed for the ultimate disposal of these solid wastes. The Municipal Solid Waste(Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 makes it mandatory on all municipalities to practice soundwaste management principles and dispose of waste as per rule (Samantsinghar & Dash, 2008)However, most ULB are yet to take initiatives to comply with the Rules due to lack of financialresources, institutional weaknesses, and improper choice of technology. The MSW management atParadeep has become significant after 2005 when a number of large industry has started operatingresulting in rapid urbanization at this area. A n attempt ha s  been made i n  thi s  pape r   to r  evie w  the p r  e s ent p r  actice o fs olid w a s te management in Paradeep. The current study aimed at determiningaccurately quantities of waste generated in Paradeep town, the composition of MSW . The paper alsodeals with baseline data for measuring the effectiveness of waste minimization strategies andevaluation of the existing waste management practices based on the data and suggests improvements. 2.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: The study was undertaken with the following objectives: · Assessment of waste quantity & characteristics · Assessment of existing status of collection, storage, transportation, treatment, and disposal activities. · Review of status with respect to existing legislation. · Suggestions for indicative strategies and guidelines enabling the municipal authorities to formulate anaction plan for better management of MSW. 3.MATERIALS AND METHODS: I n f  o r  mation on gene r  ation and management o fw a s te at Paradeep municipality was collecte dfr  om publi s hed docume n t s  and data available w ith the M unicipal Council. Fields u r  vey on the phy s ical con s tituent s  o f   the w a s te s , s ocio - economic s tatu s  o f   the M unicipal Council andconve rs ation sw ith the P ublic w e r  e conducted to a ss e ss  the s olid w a s te gene r  ation in Paradeep.D ata on the exi s ting f  acilitie s  available f  o r   collecti o n p r  actice, t r  an s  po r  tation mechan i sm, s eg r  egation and di s  po s al p r  actice o f   the w a s te w e r  e collected fr  om the municipality apart from fieldverification. H ou s eh o ld w a s te gene r  ation w a s  a ss e ss ed th r  ough a que s tionnai r  e s u r  vey fr  om the r  andomly s elected hou s ehold s  in the area. Similarly in order to know the composition of solid wastecharacteristics, waste were collected from different area and analyzed. 4.STUDY AREA: Paradeep is a Port Town in the district of Jagatsinghpur in coastal region (Fig-1). It is situated on thecoast of the Bay of Bengal. It is a coastal town surrounded by Sea and creek on three sides. Paradeepis most important commercial sea port of the country. It is located at a distance of 125Km from thestate capital Bhubaneswar. The Sea port of Paradeep is the oldest existing port of the state of Orissa.Paradeep being an emerging commercial coastal belt with rich scope of mining has always been thecentre of attraction at the regional scale. However industrialization has become the driving force for the Paradeep urbanization. Paradeep has major industries like IFFCO, IOCL, PPL , Essar steel ,Cargil-India, Goa-carbon, SKOL Breweries Limited and various numerous small and medium scaleindustries within the municipality jurisdiction. 7 big hotels, two hospitals, a number of guest housesare located in the town. Paradeep town is managed by Paradeep municipality which has an elected body. The total municipality has 18 administrative wards.  Himansu Sekhar Patra et. al  . /   International Journal of Modern Sciences and Engineering Technology (IJMSET)  ISSN 2349-3755; Available at https://www.ijmset.comVolume 2, Issue 3, 2015, pp.1-9 © IJMSET-Advanced Scientific Research Forum (ASRF), All Rights Reserved “IJMSET promotes research nature, Research nature enriches the world’s future 3 Figure-1: The Location Map of Paradeep municipality. PARADEEP MUNICIPALITY AT A GLANCE: From administrative view point, Paradeep N.A.C. was constituted vide H & U.D. Department    Notification No. 31169, dated 27.9.1979 and actually started functioning with effect from 18.9.1980.   Subsequently this N.A.C. was upgraded to Municipality. Paradeep Municipality comprises of onlyfive Revenue Villages namely Udachandrapur, Chauliapalanda, Sandhakuda, Bijayachandrapur &Bhitaragarh. Presently the municipality has 18 wards (Fig-2) having a total population of around87448 of 19986 household. Apart from this 2237 number of family are residing outside themunicipality area and fringe area. Ward no. 15 in Paradeep Municipality is one of the lifeline of thecity. The major corporate offices, Bus stand, police Station, holies tics places and Market are locatedthere. The area is thickly crowded with floating population for which lot of solid waste are generated.The ward is comprised with Bijaya Market, Building Market, Jubuli Market, Garage Line, Kamalacinema Hall, Port Quarter, Kamala Cinema Hall Front basti, Sarala Temple area, Bus stand, PoliceStation, PPT Gate no. 4 area, Car stand, Durga Temple, Masque & Jayadev Sadan Square to MausiMaa Temple Square upto Nehru park, Netajee Statue and PPT Administrative Office. The major industries like IFFCO, PPL, CARBON, I.O.C.L., H.P.C.L. B.P.C.L. are set up here. So besidesindustrial wastes unleashed by industries, there is garbage on Municipal Solid waste at a rate of approximate 51 tones a day which is likely to increase in coming years due to increasing pace of urbanization and industrialization. Figure-2: The Municipality ward of Paradeep Town  Himansu Sekhar Patra et. al  . /   International Journal of Modern Sciences and Engineering Technology (IJMSET)  ISSN 2349-3755; Available at https://www.ijmset.comVolume 2, Issue 3, 2015, pp.1-9 © IJMSET-Advanced Scientific Research Forum (ASRF), All Rights Reserved “IJMSET promotes research nature, Research nature enriches the world’s future 4 5.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Solid Waste includes commercial and residential wastes generated in municipal or notified areas, ineither solid or semi-solid form excluding industrial hazardous wastes, but including treated bio-medical wastes. The Government of India issued Municipal Solid Waste (Handling and Management)Rules, 2008 for its implementation at the local level. The mandatory requirements of the rule are,   Source segregation and storage at source   Door to door collection   Abolition of open storage   Daily sweeping of the street   Transportation of waste in covered vehicles   Waste processing by composting or energy recovery   Disposal of inerts by sanitary land filling.Paradeep town is a industrial and its economy has many major players. With the pace of urbanization,increase in population (Table-1)since few years, the generation of solid waste has increasedtremendously as shown in Fig.3. The city economy has grown up to a greater extent which isreflected from Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) in (Table 2). Increase in GDDP growth rateand population explosion accelerated the increase in solid waste generation(Table-3,Fig-3) as there isa positive correlation between economic growth, population growth and MSW generation. Fig. 4 andFig. 5 shows that there is a regular increase in GDDP and population growth. In 2005 the GDDPgrowth rate and population was Rs./- 248082 lakhs and 85672 person respectively. It was increased toRs./- 478627 lakhs and 100877 person respectively in 2009. At the same time it was noticed that theMSW in the year 2005 was 42 MT/day and it was increased to 51 MT/day in 2013followed by population of 112573 and GDDP of 979415. This increase in MSW is putting extra pressure onMunicipal authorities. The system of primary collection, street sweeping and transportation of wastefrom the doorstep has been outsourced to local private contractors in 14 wards in the city. The door todoor collection is still partial in these wards. Maximum percentage of solid waste consists of  biodegradable which is around 43 % (Fig-6) of the total waste and is made up of vegetable, fruitremainders, leaves, spoiled food, eggshells, cotton, etc. Next to biodegradable waste another major  percentage of solid waste consists of the total waste is inert materials (35%)n which consists of construction waste, renovation waste, demolition waste, etc. This is followed by recycle waste whichof paper, scrap, plastic & polythene. The pattern of composition of solid waste varies from ward toward. While at zero point and IOCL refinery area, majority of the waste are construction waste, atBalimarket & Badapadia, degradable organic waste consists of a major portion of the waste.Table-1: Population Prediction YearPopulation 1981120001991511312001736252011105497 predicted201512894720211705172031303597  Himansu Sekhar Patra et. al  . /   International Journal of Modern Sciences and Engineering Technology (IJMSET)  ISSN 2349-3755; Available at https://www.ijmset.comVolume 2, Issue 3, 2015, pp.1-9 © IJMSET-Advanced Scientific Research Forum (ASRF), All Rights Reserved “IJMSET promotes research nature, Research nature enriches the world’s future 5 Table-2: Gross District Domestic Product prediction Year GDDP at current prices, (Rs. Inlakhs) 200524808220062652322007327959200841252820094786272011721520Predicted201514006432021285345020254246081  Table -3: MSW generation prediction YearMSW (MT/day) 200845.27200946.18201047.1201148.1201249.07201350.06Predicted201552202158202562   Figure-3: Solid waste generation prediction. Figure-4: co-relation between economic &  population Figure-5 : co-relation between GDDP &  population
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