lköğretim Okulu Yöneticilerinin Liderlik Stilleri İle Öğretmenlerin Yıldırma (Mobbing) Yaşama Düzeyleri Arasındaki İlişki

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Özet Bu araştırmanın amacı öğretmenlerin algılarına göre okul yöneticilerinin liderlik stilleri ile öğretmenlerin yıldırma yaşama düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkiyi saptamaktır. Araştırma ilişkisel tarama modelindedir. Araştırmanın evrenini 2010-2011

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  󰀲󰀱󰀴 Uşa󰁫 󰃜󰁮󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁳󰁩 S󰁯󰁳󰁹a󰁬 B󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁭󰁬󰁥󰁲 D󰁥󰁲󰁧󰁩󰁳󰁩, 2012 G󰃼󰁺 (5/3) İ󰁬󰁫󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭 󰁏󰁫󰁵󰁬󰁵 󰁙󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁌󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁓󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 İ󰁬󰁥 󰃖ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁙ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭󰁡 (󰁍󰁯󰁢󰁢󰁩󰁮󰁧) 󰁙󰁡ş󰁡󰁭󰁡 󰁄󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁁󰁲󰁡󰁳ı󰁮󰁤󰁡󰁫󰁩 İ󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩 *   N󰁥󰁣a󰁴󰁩 CEMALOĞLU **  V󰁥󰁹󰁳󰁥󰁬 OK󰃇U *   󰃖󰁺󰁥󰁴 B󰁵 a󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a󰁮ı󰁮 a󰁭a󰁣ı 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 a󰁬󰁧ı󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮a 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁹aşa󰁭a 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 a󰁲a󰁳ı󰁮󰁤a󰁫󰁩 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩󰁹󰁩 󰁳a󰁰󰁴a󰁭a󰁫󰁴ı󰁲. A󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩󰁳󰁥󰁬 󰁴a󰁲a󰁭a 󰁭󰁯󰁤󰁥󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁲. A󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a󰁮ı󰁮 󰁥󰁶󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁩󰁮󰁩 2010󰀭2011 󰁥ğ󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁭󰀭󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭 󰁹ı󰁬ı󰁮󰁤a S󰁩󰁩󰁲󰁴 󰁩󰁬 󰁶󰁥 󰁩󰁬󰃧󰁥 󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁫󰁥󰁺󰁩 󰁳ı󰁮ı󰁲󰁬a󰁲ı 󰁩󰃧󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁹󰁥󰁲 a󰁬a󰁮 66 󰁩󰁬󰁫󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬󰁵󰁮󰁤a 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁶 󰁹a󰁰a󰁮 1315 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮 󰁯󰁬󰁵ş󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁭a󰁫󰁴a󰁤ı󰁲. A󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁤a 󰃶󰁲󰁮󰁥󰁫󰁬󰁥󰁭 a󰁬󰁭a 󰁹󰁯󰁬󰁵󰁮a 󰁧󰁩󰁤󰁩󰁬󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁩ş󰁴󰁩󰁲. O󰁫󰁵󰁬 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁨a󰁫󰁫ı󰁮󰁤a 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰃼ş󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 b󰁥󰁬󰁩󰁲󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁫 a󰁭a󰁣ı󰁹󰁬a Ba󰁳󰁳 󰁶󰁥 A󰁶󰁯󰁬󰁩󰁯 󰁶󰁥 (1995) 󰁴a󰁲a󰁦ı󰁮󰁤a󰁮 󰁧󰁥󰁬󰁩ş󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁮 󲀜󰃇󰁯󰁫 Fa󰁫󰁴󰃶󰁲󰁬󰃼 L󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰃖󰁬󰃧󰁥ğ󰁩󲀝 󰁫󰁵󰁬󰁬a󰁮ı󰁬󰁭ış󰁴ı󰁲. 󰃖ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a󰁮ı󰁮 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁶 󰁶󰁥 󰁳󰁯󰁳󰁹a󰁬 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲 b󰁯󰁹󰁵󰁴󰁬a󰁲ı 󰁫a󰁰󰁳a󰁭ı󰁮a 󰁧󰁩󰁲󰁥󰁮 󰁯󰁬󰁵󰁭󰁳󰁵󰁺 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış󰁬a󰁲a 󰁭a󰁲󰁵󰁺 󰁫a󰁬󰁭a 󰁳ı󰁫󰁬ığı󰁮ı 󰃶󰁬󰃧󰁭󰁥󰁫 a󰁭a󰁣ı󰁹󰁬a E󰁩󰁮a󰁲󰁳󰁥󰁮 󰁶󰁥 Ra󰁫󰁮󰁥󰁳 (1997) 󰁴a󰁲a󰁦ı󰁮󰁤a󰁮 󰁧󰁥󰁬󰁩ş󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁮 󲀜O󰁬󰁵󰁭󰁳󰁵󰁺 Da󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış S󰁯󰁲󰁵󰁬a󰁲ı 󰃖󰁬󰃧󰁥ğ󰁩󲀝 󰁫󰁵󰁬󰁬a󰁮ı󰁬󰁭ış󰁴ı󰁲. A󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a󰁮ı󰁮 󰁳󰁯󰁮󰁵󰁣󰁵󰁮󰁤a 󰁩󰁬󰁫󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬󰁵 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 a󰁬󰁧ı󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮a 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥   󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁤󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı 󰁯󰁲󰁴a 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁤󰁥 󰁧󰁥󰁲󰃧󰁥󰁫󰁬󰁥ş󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁤󰁩󰁫󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩, 󰁩ş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁣󰁩 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı 󰁩󰁳󰁥 󰁤󰃼ş󰃼󰁫 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁤󰁥 󰁧󰃶󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁤󰁩󰁫󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁶󰁥 󰁤󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı 󰁩ş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁣󰁩 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮󰁤a󰁮 󰁤a󰁨a 󰁦a󰁺󰁬a 󰁳󰁥󰁲󰁧󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁫󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁴󰁥󰁳󰁰󰁩󰁴 󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁬󰁭󰁩ş󰁴󰁩󰁲. İ󰁬󰁫󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮󰁤a 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁶 󰁹a󰁰a󰁮 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a󰁮ı󰁮 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁶 󰁶󰁥 󰁳󰁯󰁳󰁹a󰁬 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲  b󰁯󰁹󰁵󰁴󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮󰁤a 󰁯󰁬󰁵󰁭󰁳󰁵󰁺 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış󰁬a󰁲a 󲀜a󰁲a 󰁳ı󰁲a󲀝 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁭a󰁲󰁵󰁺 󰁫a󰁬󰁤ı󰁫󰁬a󰁲ı; 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a 󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁤󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩ğ󰁩󰁮 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁮󰁥󰁧a󰁴󰁩󰁦 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁶󰁥 a󰁮󰁬a󰁭󰁬ı 󰁯󰁬󰁤󰁵ğ󰁵; 󰁩ş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁣󰁩 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩ğ󰁩󰁮 󰁩󰁳󰁥 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a 󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁫󰁩 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 a󰁮󰁬a󰁭󰁬ı 󰁯󰁬󰁭a󰁤ığı 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁹a 󰁫󰁯󰁮󰁭󰁵ş󰁴󰁵󰁲. Ya󰁰ı󰁬a󰁮 󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁹󰁯󰁮 a󰁮a󰁬󰁩󰁺󰁩 󰁳󰁯󰁮󰁵󰁣󰁵󰁮󰁤a 󰁤󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁶󰁥 󰁩ş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁣󰁩 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩ğ󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰃼󰁭 a󰁬󰁴 b󰁯󰁹󰁵󰁴󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı󰁮 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a󰁮ı󰁮 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁶󰁥 󰁶󰁥 󰁳󰁯󰁳󰁹a󰁬 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩󰁮 󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁩󰁫󰁩 a󰁬󰁴 b󰁯󰁹󰁵󰁴 󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁹󰁯󰁲󰁤a󰁹ı󰁣ı 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩 󰁹a󰁰󰁴ığı 󰁴󰁥󰁳󰁰󰁩󰁴 󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁬󰁭󰁩ş󰁴󰁩󰁲. 󰁁󰁮󰁡󰁨󰁴󰁡󰁲 󰁓󰃶󰁺󰁣󰃼󰁫󰁬󰁥󰁲󰀺 L󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩, D󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫, 󰁩ş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁣󰁩 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫, 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a, 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁳󰁩, 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮 *  B󰁵 a󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a󰁮ı󰁮 󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩, a󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a󰁣ı󰁮ı󰁮 󰁤󰁯󰁫󰁴󰁯󰁲a 󰁴󰁥󰁺󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁮 a󰁬ı󰁮󰁭ış 󰁶󰁥 b󰁵 󰃧a󰁬ış󰁭a 󲀜7. U󰁬󰁵󰁳a󰁬 Eğ󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁭 Y󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁩󲀝 󰁫󰁯󰁮󰁧󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁳󰃶󰁺󰁬󰃼 b󰁩󰁬󰁤󰁩󰁲󰁩 󰁯󰁬a󰁲a󰁫 󰁳󰁵󰁮󰁵󰁬󰁭󰁵ş󰁴󰁵󰁲. **  D󰁯󰃧. D󰁲. N󰁥󰁣a󰁴󰁩 CEMALOĞLU, Ga󰁺󰁩 󰃜󰁮󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁳󰁩, Ga󰁺󰁩 Eğ󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁭 Fa󰁫󰃼󰁬󰁴󰁥󰁳󰁩, Eğ󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁭 B󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁭󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 B󰃶󰁬󰃼󰁭󰃼. *  Y󰁲󰁤. D󰁯󰃧. D󰁲. V󰁥󰁹󰁳󰁥󰁬 OK󰃇U, S󰁩󰁩󰁲󰁴 󰃜󰁮󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁳󰁩, Eğ󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁭 Fa󰁫󰃼󰁬󰁴󰁥󰁳󰁩, Eğ󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁭 B󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁭󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 B󰃶󰁬󰃼󰁭󰃼  󰀲󰀱󰀵 Uşa󰁫 󰃜󰁮󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁳󰁩 S󰁯󰁳󰁹a󰁬 B󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁭󰁬󰁥󰁲 D󰁥󰁲󰁧󰁩󰁳󰁩, 2012 G󰃼󰁺 (5/3) 󰁁󰁢󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁣󰁴 T󰁨󰁥 󰁰󰁵󰁲󰁰󰁯󰁳󰁥 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁳󰁴󰁵󰁤󰁹 󰁷a󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁤󰁥󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁲󰁲󰁥󰁬a󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 b󰁥󰁴󰁷󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁬󰁥a󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰 󰁴󰁹󰁰󰁥󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁳󰁣󰁨󰁯󰁯󰁬 󰁰󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁰a󰁬󰁳 󰁭󰁯bb󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁬󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁥a󰁣󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁳. T󰁨󰁥 󰁳󰁴󰁵󰁤󰁹 󰁷a󰁳 a 󰁲󰁥󰁬a󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮a󰁬 󰁳󰁣󰁲󰁥󰁥󰁮󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁭󰁯󰁤󰁥󰁬 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁥a󰁲󰁣󰁨. P󰁯󰁰󰁵󰁬a󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁳󰁴󰁵󰁤󰁹 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁯󰁦 1315 󰁰󰁲󰁩󰁭a󰁲󰁹 󰁳󰁣󰁨󰁯󰁯󰁬 󰁴󰁥a󰁣󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁷󰁨󰁯 󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁫 󰁩󰁮 T󰁵󰁲󰁫󰁩󰁳󰁨 P󰁵b󰁬󰁩󰁣, 󰁩󰁮 S󰁩󰁩󰁲󰁴, T󰁵󰁲󰁫󰁥󰁹. T󰁨󰁥 󰁳󰁴󰁵󰁤󰁹 󰁳a󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁥 󰁷a󰁳 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁴a󰁫󰁥󰁮. I󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁳󰁴󰁵󰁤󰁹, 󰁳󰁣a󰁬󰁥 󰁯󰁦 󲀜M󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁩󰁦a󰁣󰁴󰁯󰁲 L󰁥a󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰 Q󰁵󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁮a󰁩󰁲󰁥󲀝 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁥󰁤 b󰁹 Ba󰁳󰁳 a󰁮󰁤 A󰁶󰁯󰁬󰁩󰁯 (1995) 󰁷a󰁳 󰁵󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁯 󰁤󰁥󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁬󰁥a󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰 󰁳󰁴󰁹󰁬󰁥󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁳󰁣󰁨󰁯󰁯󰁬 󰁰󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁰a󰁬󰁳. S󰁣a󰁬󰁥 󰁯󰁦 󲀜N󰁥󰁧a󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥 B󰁥󰁨a󰁶󰁩󰁯󰁵󰁲 Q󰁵󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁮a󰁩󰁲󰁥󲀝, 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰󰁥󰁤 b󰁹 F󰁩󰁮a󰁲󰁳󰁥󰁮 a󰁮󰁤 Ra󰁫󰁮󰁥󰁳 (1997) a󰁮󰁤 󰁷a󰁳 󰁵󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁯 󰁤󰁥󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁥 󰁦󰁲󰁥󰁱󰁵󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁹 󰁬󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬 󰁯󰁦 󰁭󰁯bb󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭 󰁯󰁦 󰁴a󰁳󰁫 a󰁮󰁤 󰁳󰁯󰁣󰁩a󰁬 󰁲󰁥󰁬a󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁤󰁩󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁷󰁨󰁩󰁣󰁨 󰁴󰁥a󰁣󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥. T󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁵󰁬󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁳󰁴󰁵󰁤󰁹 󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁩󰁣a󰁴󰁥 󰁴󰁨a󰁴 󰁳󰁣󰁨󰁯󰁯󰁬 󰁰󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁰a󰁬󰁳 󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁰󰁬a󰁹󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁲a󰁮󰁳󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭a󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮a󰁬 󰁬󰁥a󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰 b󰁥󰁨a󰁶󰁩󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳 a󰁴 󰁭󰁩󰁤󰀭󰁬󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬 󰁷󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰁳󰁣󰁨󰁯󰁯󰁬 󰁰󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁰a󰁬󰁳 󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁰󰁬a󰁹󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁲a󰁮󰁳a󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮a󰁬 󰁬󰁥a󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰 b󰁥󰁨a󰁶󰁩󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳 a󰁴 󰁬󰁯󰁷 󰁬󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬 a󰁮󰁤 󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁰󰁬a󰁹 󰁴󰁲a󰁮󰁳a󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮a󰁬  b󰁥󰁨a󰁶󰁩󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁬󰁯󰁷 󰁬󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬, 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁭󰁥a󰁮󰁳 󰁴󰁨a󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁹 󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁰󰁬a󰁹 󰁴󰁲a󰁮󰁳a󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮a󰁬 󰁬󰁥a󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰 b󰁥󰁨a󰁶󰁩󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁯󰁦󰁴󰁥󰁮 󰁴󰁨a󰁮 󰁴󰁲a󰁮󰁳a󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮a󰁬 󰁬󰁥a󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰 b󰁥󰁨a󰁶󰁩󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳. T󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁳 󰁳󰁨󰁯󰁷󰁳 󰁴󰁨a󰁴 󰁴󰁥a󰁣󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁳, 󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁫󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁮 󰁰󰁲󰁩󰁭a󰁲󰁹 󰁳󰁣󰁨󰁯󰁯󰁬󰁳, a󰁲󰁥 󲀘󰁳󰁯󰁭󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁥󰁳󲀙 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁯󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁯 󰁭󰁯bb󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭 󰁯󰁦 󰁴a󰁳󰁫 a󰁮󰁤 󰁳󰁯󰁣󰁩a󰁬 󰁲󰁥󰁬a󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁤󰁩󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮, 󰁥󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁣󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁲a󰁮󰁳󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭a󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮a󰁬 󰁬󰁥a󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰 󰁨a󰁳 b󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁩󰁮 󰁮󰁥󰁧a󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥 󰁤󰁩󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 a󰁮󰁤 󰁭󰁥a󰁮󰁩󰁮󰁧󰁦󰁵󰁬 󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲 󰁭󰁯bb󰁩󰁮󰁧, 󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁨a󰁮󰁤, 󰁥󰁦󰁦󰁥󰁣󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁲a󰁮󰁳a󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮a󰁬 󰁬󰁥a󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰 󰁩󰁳 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁭󰁥a󰁮󰁩󰁮󰁧󰁦󰁵󰁬 󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲 󰁭󰁯bb󰁩󰁮󰁧. A󰁳 a 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁵󰁬󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮 a󰁮a󰁬󰁹󰁳󰁩󰁳 a󰁬󰁬 󰁳󰁵b󰀭󰁤󰁩󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁲a󰁮󰁳󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭a󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮a󰁬 a󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁲a󰁮󰁳a󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮a󰁬 󰁬󰁥a󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰 󰁨a󰁶󰁥 󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁭󰁯bb󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁴a󰁳󰁫 a󰁮󰁤 󰁳󰁯󰁣󰁩a󰁬 󰁲󰁥󰁬a󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮. 󰁋󰁥󰁹󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁤󰁳󰀺  L󰁥a󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰, 󰁴󰁲a󰁮󰁳󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭a󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮a󰁬 󰁬󰁥a󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰, 󰁴󰁲a󰁮󰁳a󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮a󰁬 󰁬󰁥a󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰, 󰁭󰁯bb󰁩󰁮󰁧, 󰁳󰁣󰁨󰁯󰁯󰁬 󰁰󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁰a󰁬, 󰁴󰁥a󰁣󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁇󰁩󰁲󰁩ş 󰃖󰁲󰁧󰃼󰁴󰁳󰁥󰁬 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁭󰁤a 󰁩ş󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁥󰁳, 󰁩ş 󰁤󰁯󰁹󰁵󰁭󰁳󰁵󰁺󰁬󰁵ğ󰁵 󰁶󰁥 󰁴󰃼󰁫󰁥󰁮󰁭󰁩ş󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁹aşa󰁭a󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮󰁤a 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁩 󰁯󰁬a󰁮 󰁰󰁥󰁫 󰃧󰁯󰁫 󰁦a󰁲󰁫󰁬ı 󰁤󰁥ğ󰁩ş󰁫󰁥󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁮 󰁳󰃶󰁺 󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁬󰁥b󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁲 (C󰁥󰁭a󰁬󰁯ğ󰁬󰁵, 2011; C󰁥󰁭a󰁬󰁯ğ󰁬󰁵, 2007a). B󰁵 󰁤󰁥ğ󰁩ş󰁫󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁤󰁥󰁮 b󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁩 󰁤󰁥, 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a󰁤ı󰁲. İş 󰁹󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış󰁬a󰁲ı 󰃶󰁲󰁧󰃼󰁴 󰁩󰃧󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁧󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁭󰁩󰁮 󰁶󰁥 󰃧a󰁴ış󰁭a󰁬ı b󰁩󰁲 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁭ı󰁮 󰁯󰁬󰁵ş󰁭a󰁳ı󰁮a 󰁮󰁥󰁤󰁥󰁮 󰁯󰁬a󰁮 󰁰󰁳󰁩󰁫󰁯󰁬󰁯󰁪󰁩󰁫 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 b󰁩󰁲󰁬󰁥ş󰁩󰁭󰁩 󰁳󰁯󰁮󰁵󰁣󰁵󰁮󰁤a 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁹a 󰃧ı󰁫a󰁮, 󰃶󰁲󰁧󰃼󰁴 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁮󰁩󰁮󰁩 b󰁯󰁺a󰁮, 󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭a󰁮󰁳ı 󰁤󰃼ş󰃼󰁲󰁥󰁮, 󰁭󰁯󰁴󰁩󰁶a󰁳󰁹󰁯󰁮󰁵󰁮󰁵 b󰁯󰁺a󰁮, 󰁩ş󰁥 bağ󰁬ı󰁬ığı a󰁺a󰁬󰁴a󰁮, 󰁩ş 󰁤󰁯󰁹󰁵󰁭󰁵 󰁶󰁥 󰃧a󰁬ış󰁭a 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁭ı󰁮ı 󰁯󰁬󰁵󰁭󰁳󰁵󰁺 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁹󰁥󰁮 󰁴󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁬 󰁳󰁯󰁲󰁵󰁮󰁬a󰁲󰁤a󰁮 b󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁤󰁩󰁲 (Kı󰁲󰁥󰁬, 2008, 󰁳. 17; K󰁯󰁣a󰁯ğ󰁬󰁵, 2007; T󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁫, 2010; T󰁵󰁴a󰁲, 2004, 󰁳. 89). Y󰁵󰁲󰁴 󰁩󰃧󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 Işı󰁫 (2007) 󰁶󰁥 Ta󰁹󰁹a󰁲 (2008) 󰁴a󰁲a󰁦ı󰁮󰁤a󰁮 󰁹a󰁰ı󰁬a󰁮 a󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a󰁤a, 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁵󰁹󰁧󰁵󰁬a󰁭a󰁬a󰁲ı 󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰁩ş 󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩 󰁶󰁥 󰁩ş 󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭a󰁮󰁳ı a󰁲a󰁳ı󰁮󰁤a a󰁮󰁬a󰁭󰁬ı b󰁩󰁲 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁯󰁬󰁤󰁵ğ󰁵 󰁧󰃶󰁺󰁬󰁥󰁮󰁭󰁩ş󰁴󰁩󰁲. Y󰁵󰁲󰁴 󰁤ışı󰁮󰁤a 󰁹a󰁰ı󰁬a󰁮 b󰁩󰁲 󰃧󰁯󰁫 a󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a󰁤a 󰁩󰁳󰁥 (A󰁧󰁥󰁲󰁶󰁯󰁬󰁤 󰁶󰁥 M󰁩󰁫󰁫󰁥󰁬󰁳󰁥󰁮, 2004; A󰁲a󰃺󰁪󰁯, E󰁬󰁭󰁥󰁳 M󰁣󰁬󰁮󰁴󰁹󰁲󰁥 󰁶󰁥 M󰁥󰁮󰁤󰁯󰁮󰁣a M󰁣󰁬󰁮󰁴󰁹󰁲󰁥, 2010; B󰁪󰃶󰁲󰁫󰁧󰁶󰁩󰁳󰁴, 󰃖󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭a󰁮  󰀲󰀱󰀶 Uşa󰁫 󰃜󰁮󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁳󰁩 S󰁯󰁳󰁹a󰁬 B󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁭󰁬󰁥󰁲 D󰁥󰁲󰁧󰁩󰁳󰁩, 2012 G󰃼󰁺 (5/3) 󰁶󰁥 H󰁪󰁥󰁬󰁴󰀭Ba󰁣󰁫,, 1994; E󰁩󰁮a󰁲󰁳󰁥󰁮, Ma󰁴󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁥󰁳󰁥󰁮 󰁶󰁥 S󰁫󰁯󰁧󰁳󰁴a󰁤, 1998; E󰁩󰁮a󰁲󰁳󰁥󰁮 󰁶󰁥 Ra󰁫󰁮󰁥󰁳, 1997; D󰁩󰁣󰁫 󰁶󰁥 Wa󰁧󰁮󰁥󰁲, 2001; J󰁥󰁮󰁫󰁩󰁮󰁳, W󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁦󰁩󰁥󰁬󰁤 󰁶󰁥 Sa󰁲󰁲󰁩󰁳 2010; L󰁥󰁹󰁭a󰁮, 1996; M󰁩󰁫󰁫󰁥󰁬󰁳󰁥󰁮 󰁶󰁥 E󰁩󰁮a󰁲󰁳󰁥󰁮, 2001; N󰁩󰁥󰁬󰁳󰁥󰁮, Ma󰁴󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁥󰁳󰁥󰁮, H󰁥󰁴󰁬a󰁮󰁤 󰁶󰁥 E󰁩󰁮a󰁲󰁳󰁥󰁮, 2010; Va󰁲󰁴󰁩a, 1996; Za󰁰󰁦, 1999) 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a󰁹a 󰁭a󰁲󰁵󰁺 󰁫a󰁬a󰁮 󰃧a󰁬ışa󰁮󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮 󰁩ş 󰁤󰁯󰁹󰁵󰁭󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı 󰁤󰃼ş󰃼󰁲󰁤󰃼ğ󰃼, 󰁴󰃼󰁫󰁥󰁮󰁭󰁩ş󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁩󰁮󰁩 a󰁲󰁴󰁴ı󰁲󰁤ığı, 󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁥󰁳 󰁶󰁥 󰁺󰁩󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁳󰁥󰁬 󰁹󰁯󰁲󰁧󰁵󰁮󰁬󰁵󰁫 b󰁥󰁬󰁩󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁳󰁩 󰁧󰃶󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁤󰁩󰁫󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩, 󰁺a󰁭a󰁮 󰁩󰃧󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁲󰁵󰁨󰁳a󰁬 󰁳ağ󰁬ı󰁫 󰁳󰁯󰁲󰁵󰁮󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı a󰁲󰁴󰁴ı󰁲󰁤ığı, 󰁹󰃼󰁫󰁳󰁥󰁫 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁤󰁥 󰁤󰁥󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁹󰁯󰁮, 󰁫a󰁹󰁧ı 󰁶󰁥 󰁳a󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁧a󰁮󰁬ı󰁫 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ışı 󰁧󰃶󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁤󰁩󰁫󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁶󰁥 󰁳ağ󰁬ı󰁫󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮󰁤a 󰁣󰁩󰁤󰁤󰁩 b󰁯󰁺󰁵󰁬󰁭a󰁬a󰁲 󰁭󰁥󰁹󰁤a󰁮a 󰁧󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁤󰁩ğ󰁩 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁹a 󰁫󰁯󰁮󰁭󰁵ş󰁴󰁵󰁲. O󰁫󰁵󰁬 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮, 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁰󰁳󰁩󰁫󰁯󰀭󰁳󰁯󰁳󰁹a󰁬 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış󰁬a󰁲ı 󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁩 󰁯󰁬󰁤󰁵ğ󰁵󰁮a 󰁤a󰁩󰁲 b󰁩󰁲󰃧󰁯󰁫 a󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁹a󰁰ı󰁬󰁭ış󰁴ı󰁲. Y󰁵󰁲󰁴 󰁩󰃧󰁩 󰁶󰁥 󰁹󰁵󰁲󰁴 󰁤ışı󰁮󰁤a 󰁹a󰁰ı󰁬a󰁮 b󰁩󰁲󰃧󰁯󰁫 a󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a󰁤a b󰁥󰁮󰁩󰁭󰁳󰁥󰁮󰁥󰁮 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁩 󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a a󰁲a󰁳ı󰁮󰁤a 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩 󰁯󰁬󰁤󰁵ğ󰁵 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁹a 󰁫󰁯󰁮󰁭󰁵ş󰁴󰁵󰁲 (A󰁧󰁥󰁲󰁶󰁯󰁬󰁤 󰁶󰁥 M󰁩󰁫󰁫󰁥󰁬󰁳󰁥󰁮 2004; C󰁥󰁭a󰁬󰁯ğ󰁬󰁵, 2007b, 2011; C󰁥󰁭a󰁬󰁯ğ󰁬󰁵 󰁶󰁥 K󰁯󰁲󰁫󰁭a󰁺, 2010; E󰁩󰁮a󰁲󰁳󰁥󰁮 󰁶󰁥 󰁤󰁩ğ󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩, 1994; E󰁲󰁴󰃼󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁥󰁮, 2008; C󰁥󰁮󰁧󰁩󰁺, 2008; L󰁥󰁹󰁭a󰁮, 1996; Va󰁲󰁴󰁩a, 1996). K󰁯󰁲󰁫󰁭a󰁺 󰁶󰁥 C󰁥󰁭a󰁬󰁯ğ󰁬󰁵 (2010) 󰁹a󰁰󰁴ığı a󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a󰁤a 󰁳󰁯󰁳󰁹a󰁬 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁹󰁯ğ󰁵󰁮 󰁯󰁬a󰁲a󰁫 󰁹aşa󰁮󰁤ığı 󰁥ğ󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁭 󰃶󰁲󰁧󰃼󰁴󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a󰁮ı󰁮 󰃶󰁲󰁧󰃼󰁴󰁳󰁥󰁬 󰁧󰃼󰁶󰁥󰁮 󰁶󰁥 󰁩󰁫󰁬󰁩󰁭󰁩 󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁭󰁬󰁩 󰁯󰁲a󰁮󰁤a 󰁺a󰁹ı󰁦󰁬a󰁴󰁴ığı, Za󰁰󰁦 (1999, 󰁳. 75) 󰁩󰁳󰁥, 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a󰁮ı󰁮 󰃶󰁲󰁧󰃼󰁴 󰁩󰁫󰁬󰁩󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁥 󰁺a󰁲a󰁲 󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁤󰁩ğ󰁩, 󰁩ş 󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁥 󰁶󰁥 b󰁵󰁮a bağ󰁬ı 󰁯󰁬a󰁲a󰁫 󰁳󰁯󰁲󰁵󰁮󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮 a󰁲󰁴󰁭a󰁳ı󰁮a 󰁮󰁥󰁤󰁥󰁮 󰁯󰁬󰁤󰁵ğ󰁵󰁮󰁵 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁹a 󰁫󰁯󰁹󰁭󰁵ş󰁴󰁵󰁲. A󰁹󰁲ı󰁣a A󰁲a󰃺󰁪󰁯 󰁶󰁥 󰁤󰁩ğ󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 (2010, 󰁳.203) 󰁶󰁥 Başa󰁫 G󰃶󰁫󰃧󰁥 (2009)   󰁩ş󰁹󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁫󰁩 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰃶󰁲󰁧󰃼󰁴󰁳󰁥󰁬 󰁩󰁫󰁬󰁩󰁭, 󰃧a󰁬ışa󰁮󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮 󰁦󰁩󰁺󰁩󰁫󰁳󰁥󰁬 󰁶󰁥 󰁲󰁵󰁨󰁳a󰁬 󰁳ağ󰁬ığı a󰁲a󰁳ı󰁮󰁤a,    J󰁥󰁮󰁫󰁩󰁮󰁳 󰁶󰁥 a󰁲󰁫a󰁤aş󰁬a󰁲ı (2010, 󰁳. 49) 󰁩󰁳󰁥, 󰁩ş󰁹󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁫󰁩 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰁩ş󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰃧a󰁬ış󰁭a 󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭a󰁮󰁳ı, 󰁭󰁯󰁲a󰁬 󰁭󰁯󰁴󰁩󰁶a󰁳󰁹󰁯󰁮󰁵 󰁶󰁥 󰃶󰁲󰁧󰃼󰁴󰁳󰁥󰁬 󰁧󰃼󰁶󰁥󰁮 a󰁲a󰁳ı󰁮󰁤a 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩 󰁯󰁬󰁤󰁵ğ󰁵󰁮󰁵 󰁳a󰁰󰁴a󰁭ış󰁴ı󰁲. C󰁥󰁭a󰁬󰁯ğ󰁬󰁵󲀙󰁮󰁵󰁮 (2007a) 󰁹a󰁰󰁴ığı a󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a󰁤a 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩, 󰁤󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı 󰁧󰃶󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁥 󰁳ı󰁫󰁬ığı󰁮ı a󰁲󰁴ı󰁲󰁤ı󰁫󰃧a 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a󰁮ı󰁮 󰁹aşa󰁮󰁭a 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁤󰃼ş󰁭󰁥 󰁹aşa󰁮ı󰁲󰁫󰁥󰁮, a󰁫󰁳󰁩 󰁤󰁵󰁲󰁵󰁭󰁬a󰁲󰁤a 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a󰁮ı󰁮 󰁹aşa󰁮󰁭a 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 a󰁲󰁴ış 󰁧󰃶󰁺󰁬󰁥󰁮󰁭󰁥󰁫󰁴󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁲. B󰁥󰁮󰁺󰁥󰁲 ş󰁥󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁤󰁥 C󰁥󰁭a󰁬󰁯ğ󰁬󰁵 󰁶󰁥 K󰁯󰁲󰁫󰁭a󰁺 (2010), E󰁩󰁮a󰁲󰁳󰁥󰁮 󰁶󰁥 󰁤󰁩ğ󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 (1994) 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁳󰁩 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 b󰁥󰁣󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁥 󰁳a󰁨󰁩󰁰 󰁯󰁬a󰁮 󰃶󰁲󰁧󰃼󰁴󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁤󰁥 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮a 󰁳ı󰁫 󰁲a󰁳󰁴󰁬a󰁮󰁭a󰁹a󰁣ağı󰁮ı b󰁥󰁬󰁩󰁲󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁫󰁴󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁲. B󰁵󰁮󰁵󰁮󰁬a b󰁩󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫󰁴󰁥 , 󰁯󰁬󰁵󰁭󰁬󰁵 󰁶󰁥 󰁳ağ󰁬ı󰁫󰁬ı b󰁩󰁲 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁭ı󰁮󰁤a 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬a 󰁤a󰁨a 󰁦a󰁺󰁬a bağ󰁬ı󰁬ı󰁫 󰁧󰃶󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁤󰁩󰁫󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁹a 󰁫󰁯󰁮󰁭󰁵ş󰁴󰁵󰁲 (T󰁵󰁲a󰁮, 2002). D󰁯󰁬a󰁹ı󰁳ı󰁹󰁬a, 󰃶󰁲󰁧󰃼󰁴󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁹aşa󰁭󰁳a󰁬 a󰁬a󰁮󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮a 󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁣󰁥 󰁧󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁰, 󰁩󰁮󰁳a󰁮 󰁫a󰁹󰁮a󰁫󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı, 󰁫a󰁬󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁹󰁩 󰁶󰁥 başa󰁲ı󰁹ı 󰁯󰁬󰁵󰁭󰁳󰁵󰁺 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁹󰁥󰁮 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a󰁹ı 󰁤a󰁨a 󰁹a󰁫ı󰁮󰁤a󰁮 󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁫 󰁶󰁥 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩󰁳󰁩 󰁯󰁬ab󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁣󰁥󰁫 󰁤󰁥ğ󰁩ş󰁫󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁩󰁲󰁤󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁫, 󰁰󰁲󰁯b󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁩󰁮 a󰁮󰁬aşı󰁬󰁭a󰁳ı󰁮a 󰁫a󰁴󰁫ı 󰁳ağ󰁬a󰁹ab󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁲. B󰁵 a󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰃶󰁺󰁥󰁬󰁬󰁩󰁫󰁬󰁥 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁹aşa󰁭a 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 a󰁺a󰁬󰁴ı󰁬󰁭a󰁳ı󰁮󰁤a 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁩 󰁯󰁬󰁵󰁰 󰁯󰁬󰁭a󰁤ığı󰁮ı 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁹a 󰁫󰁯󰁹󰁭a󰁫 󰁳󰁵󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁹󰁬󰁥, 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬󰁬a󰁲󰁤a 󰁤a󰁨a 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁩 󰁶󰁥 󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁭󰁬󰁩 b󰁩󰁲 󰃧a󰁬ış󰁭a 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁭ı 󰁯󰁬󰁵ş󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁵󰁬󰁭a󰁳ı󰁮a 󰁶󰁥 󰁥ğ󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁤󰁥 󰁫a󰁬󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁮󰁩󰁮 a󰁲󰁴󰁴ı󰁲ı󰁬󰁭a󰁳ı󰁮a 󰁫a󰁴󰁫ı 󰁳ağ󰁬a󰁭a 󰁨󰁥󰁤󰁥󰁦󰁬󰁥󰁮󰁭󰁥󰁫󰁴󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁲.  󰀲󰀱󰀷 Uşa󰁫 󰃜󰁮󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁳󰁩 S󰁯󰁳󰁹a󰁬 B󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁭󰁬󰁥󰁲 D󰁥󰁲󰁧󰁩󰁳󰁩, 2012 G󰃼󰁺 (5/3) 󰁁󰁲󰁡ş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭󰁡󰁮ı󰁮 󰁁󰁭󰁡󰁣ı A󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a󰁮ı󰁮 a󰁭a󰁣ı 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 a󰁬󰁧ı󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮a 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥, 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁹aşa󰁭a 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 a󰁲a󰁳ı󰁮󰁤a b󰁩󰁲 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁯󰁬󰁵󰁰 󰁯󰁬󰁭a󰁤ığı󰁮ı 󰁳a󰁰󰁴a󰁭a󰁫󰁴ı󰁲. B󰁵 a󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁫a󰁰󰁳a󰁭ı󰁮󰁤a aşağı󰁤a󰁫󰁩 󰁳󰁯󰁲󰁵󰁬a󰁲a 󰁹a󰁮ı󰁴 a󰁲a󰁮󰁭ış󰁴ı󰁲: 1. İ󰁬󰁫󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬󰁵 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩 (󰁤󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁶󰁥 󰁩ş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁣󰁩 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫) 󰁧󰁥󰁲󰃧󰁥󰁫󰁬󰁥ş󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁭󰁥 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁮󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁲? 2. İ󰁬󰁫󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬󰁵 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁹aşa󰁭a󰁬a󰁲ı (󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁶 󰁶󰁥 󰁳󰁯󰁳󰁹a󰁬 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲 b󰁯󰁹󰁵󰁴󰁵󰁮󰁤a) 󰁮󰁥 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁤󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁲? 3. İ󰁬󰁫󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮󰁤a 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁶 󰁹a󰁰a󰁮 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰃼ş󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁥 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥, 󰁩󰁬󰁫󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁬󰁵 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁹aşa󰁭a 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 a󰁲a󰁳ı󰁮󰁤a b󰁩󰁲 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩 󰁶a󰁲 󰁭ı󰁤ı󰁲? 4. O󰁫󰁵󰁬 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰃶ğ󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁹ı󰁬󰁤ı󰁲󰁭a 󰁹aşa󰁭a 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 (󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁶 󰁶󰁥 󰁳󰁯󰁳󰁹a󰁬 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲 b󰁯󰁹󰁵󰁴󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮󰁤a) a󰁮󰁬a󰁭󰁬ı b󰁩󰁲 󰁹󰁯󰁲󰁤a󰁹ı󰁣ı󰁳ı 󰁭ı󰁤ı󰁲?  󰁄󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁌󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁶󰁥 İş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁣󰁩 󰁌󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 S󰁯󰁮 󰁹ı󰁬󰁬a󰁲󰁤a 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫󰁬󰁥 󰁩󰁬󰁧󰁩󰁬󰁩 󰁯󰁬a󰁲a󰁫 󰁹a󰁰ı󰁬a󰁮 a󰁲aş󰁴ı󰁲󰁭a󰁬a󰁲󰁤a 󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 ağı󰁲󰁬ı󰁫󰁬ı 󰁯󰁬a󰁲a󰁫 󰁤󰁵󰁲󰁵󰁬a󰁮 󰁶󰁥 󰁩󰁬󰁧󰁩 󰃧󰁥󰁫󰁥󰁮 󰁳ı󰁮ı󰁦󰁬a󰁭a󰁬a󰁲󰁤a󰁮 b󰁩󰁲󰁩 󰁤󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁶󰁥 󰁩ş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁣󰁩 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁩󰁲. D󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁫a󰁶󰁲a󰁭ı󰁮ı 󰁳󰁩󰁹a󰁳󰁥󰁴 b󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁭󰁣󰁩 B󰁵󰁲󰁮󰁳 1978 󰁹ı󰁬ı󰁮󰁤a ABD'󰁤󰁥 󰁰󰁯󰁬󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁫 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁥ğ󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁩 󰁳ı󰁲a󰁳ı󰁮󰁤a 󰁫󰁵󰁬󰁬a󰁮󰁭ış󰁴ı󰁲. B󰁵󰁲󰁮󰁳 󰁶󰁥 Ba󰁳󰁳 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫󰁬󰁥 󰁩󰁬󰁧󰁩󰁬󰁩 󰁹󰁥󰁮󰁩 b󰁩󰁲 󰁳ı󰁮ı󰁦󰁬a󰁭a󰁮ı󰁮 󰁹a󰁰ı󰁬󰁭a󰁳ı󰁮ı󰁮 󰁺󰁯󰁲󰁵󰁮󰁬󰁵 󰁯󰁬󰁤󰁵ğ󰁵󰁮󰁵 󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁳󰃼󰁲󰁭󰃼ş󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁤󰁩󰁲. B󰁵󰁲󰁮󰁳 󰁶󰁥 Ba󰁳󰁳, 󰁧󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁮󰁥󰁫󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁶󰁥 󰁧󰁥󰃧󰁭󰁩ş󰁥 󰁤a󰁨a bağ󰁬ı 󰁯󰁬a󰁮 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 b󰁩󰃧󰁩󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁩 󰁩ş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁣󰁩 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫, 󰁧󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁣󰁥ğ󰁥, 󰁹󰁥󰁮󰁩󰁬󰁩ğ󰁥, 󰁤󰁥ğ󰁩ş󰁩󰁭󰁥 󰁶󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭a 󰁤󰃶󰁮󰃼󰁫 󰁯󰁬a󰁮 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 b󰁩󰃧󰁩󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁩 󰁤󰁥 󰁤󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 ş󰁥󰁫󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 a󰁤󰁬a󰁮󰁤ı󰁲󰁭ış󰁬a󰁲󰁤ı󰁲 (a󰁫󰁴. O󰁷󰁥󰁮 󰁶󰁥 󰁤󰁩ğ., 2007, 󰁳. 317). B󰁵󰁮󰁬a󰁲󰁤a󰁮 󰁩󰁬󰁫󰁩 󰁩󰁬󰁫󰁩, 󰁤󰁥ğ󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩 ş󰁥󰁹󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁴a󰁫a󰁳 󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥 a󰁭a󰁣ı󰁹󰁬a 󰁯󰁬󰁵ş󰁭󰁵ş 󰁤󰃼󰁮󰁹󰁥󰁶󰁩, 󰃧ı󰁫a󰁲󰁣ı 󰁶󰁥 bağ󰁳ı󰁺 b󰁩󰁲 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩 󰁴󰁩󰁰󰁩 󰁯󰁬a󰁮 󰁩ş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁣󰁩 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫󰁴󰁩󰁲. İş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁣󰁩 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫, İ󰁺󰁬󰁥󰁹󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁹󰁯󰁬 󰁧󰃶󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁮, 󰁯󰁮󰁬a󰁲ı 󰁧󰃼󰁤󰃼󰁬󰁥󰁹󰁥󰁮, 󰃶󰁲󰁧󰃼󰁴󰃼󰁮 a󰁭a󰃧󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı, 󰃧a󰁬ışa󰁮󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮 󰁲󰁯󰁬󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩 󰁶󰁥 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁶󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩 a󰃧ı󰁫󰃧a 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁹a 󰁫󰁯󰁹a󰁮 b󰁩󰁲 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁴a󰁲󰁺ı󰁤ı󰁲 (Ba󰁴󰁥󰁭a󰁮, 2002, 󰁳.471). İş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁣󰁩 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁭󰁯󰁤󰁥󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁥, 󰁩ş󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲 a󰁲a󰁳ı󰁮󰁤a 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁩 b󰁩󰁲 󰁴a󰁫a󰁳 󰁩ş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁩 󰁶a󰁲󰁤ı󰁲 󰁶󰁥 b󰁵 󰁴a󰁫a󰁳 󰃼󰃧 b󰁯󰁹󰁵󰁴󰁴a󰁮 󰁯󰁬󰁵ş󰁵󰁲. B󰁵󰁮󰁬a󰁲 󰁫󰁯ş󰁵󰁬󰁬󰁵 󰃶󰁤󰃼󰁬, 󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁳󰁮a󰁬a󰁲󰁬a 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭 󰁶󰁥 󰁭󰃼󰁤a󰁨a󰁬󰁥 󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁥 󰁹a󰁫󰁬aşı󰁭ı󰁤ı󰁲 (󰃇󰁥󰁬󰁩󰁫, 1998; Ha󰁴󰁥󰁲 󰁶󰁥 Ba󰁳󰁳, 1988; H󰁯󰁷󰁥󰁬󰁬 󰁶󰁥 A󰁶󰁯󰁬󰁩󰁯, 1993; Ka󰁲󰁩󰁰, 1998;). İş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁣󰁩 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩ğ󰁩󰁮 󰁫󰁯ş󰁵󰁬󰁬󰁵 󰃶󰁤󰃼󰁬 b󰁯󰁹󰁵󰁴󰁵󰁮󰁤a 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲, 󰃧a󰁬ışa󰁮󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮 󰁧󰃶󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁤󰁩ğ󰁩 󰃧aba󰁮ı󰁮 󰁫a󰁲şı󰁬ığı 󰁯󰁬a󰁲a󰁫 󰁯󰁮󰁬a󰁲a 󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁤󰁩ğ󰁩 󰁤󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁥ğ󰁩 󰁳ağ󰁬a󰁲. L󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲 a󰁳󰁴󰁬a󰁲ı b󰁥󰁬󰁩󰁲󰁬󰁥󰁮󰁥󰁮 a󰁭a󰃧 󰁤󰁯ğ󰁲󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁵󰁳󰁵󰁮󰁤a 󰁨a󰁲󰁥󰁫󰁥󰁴󰁥 󰁧󰁥󰃧󰁩󰁲󰁥b󰁩󰁬󰁭󰁥󰁫 󰁩󰃧󰁩󰁮 󰁯󰁮󰁬a󰁲ı 󰃶󰁤󰃼󰁬 󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰁭󰁯󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥 󰁥󰁤󰁥󰁲 (Ka󰁲󰁩󰁰, 1998). İ󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁳󰁮a󰁬a󰁲󰁬a 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭, 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁩󰁺󰁬󰁥󰁹󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁴a󰁫󰁩󰁰 󰁥󰁴󰁴󰁩ğ󰁩 󰁶󰁥 󰁤a󰁨a 󰁳󰁯󰁮󰁲a 󰁧󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁫󰁴󰁩ğ󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁹a󰁮󰁬ış󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁬󰁴󰁴󰁩ğ󰁩 󰁺a󰁭a󰁮 󰁫󰁵󰁬󰁬a󰁮ı󰁬ı󰁲. İ󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁳󰁮a󰁬a󰁲 󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭 󰁰a󰁳󰁩󰁦 󰁹a 󰁤a a󰁫󰁴󰁩󰁦 󰁯󰁬ab󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁲 (S󰁴󰁥󰁷a󰁲󰁤, 2006). A󰁫󰁴󰁩󰁦 󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁳󰁮a󰁬a󰁲󰁬a 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁤󰁥   󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲, 󰁤󰁯ğab󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁣󰁥󰁫 󰁳󰁯󰁲󰁵󰁮󰁬a󰁲󰁤a󰁮 󰁤󰁯󰁬a󰁹ı  󰀲󰀱󰀸 Uşa󰁫 󰃜󰁮󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁳󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁳󰁩 S󰁯󰁳󰁹a󰁬 B󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁭󰁬󰁥󰁲 D󰁥󰁲󰁧󰁩󰁳󰁩, 2012 G󰃼󰁺 (5/3) 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁶󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁹󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁥 󰁧󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰 󰁧󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁬󰁭󰁥󰁤󰁩ğ󰁩󰁮󰁩 󰁩󰁺󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁥 󰁶󰁥 󰁧󰁥󰃧󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩 󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭a󰁮󰁳 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁹󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩 󰁳ağ󰁬a󰁭a󰁫 󰁩󰃧󰁩󰁮 b󰁵 󰁳󰁯󰁲󰁵󰁮󰁬a󰁲ı 󰃧󰃶󰁺󰁭󰁥 󰁫󰁯󰁮󰁵󰁳󰁵󰁮󰁤a 󰁤󰁩󰁫󰁫a󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁩 󰁹󰁯ğ󰁵󰁮󰁬aş󰁴ı󰁲ı󰁲. L󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲 󰁨a󰁬󰁩 󰁨a󰁺ı󰁲󰁤a 󰁶a󰁲 󰁯󰁬a󰁮 󰁳󰃼󰁲󰁥󰃧󰁴󰁥󰁮 󰁳a󰁰󰁭a󰁬a󰁲ı 󰁧󰃶󰁺󰁥󰁴󰁬󰁥󰁲 󰁶󰁥 󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁨a󰁮󰁧󰁩 b󰁩󰁲 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁺󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁭󰁥󰁹󰁤a󰁮a 󰁧󰁥󰁬󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁳󰁩 󰁩󰃧󰁩󰁮 󰁭󰃼󰁤a󰁨a󰁬󰁥󰁤󰁥 b󰁵󰁬󰁵󰁮󰁵󰁲 (Ta󰁮󰁤󰁯ğa󰁮, 2002). Pa󰁳󰁩󰁦 󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁩󰁳󰁮a󰁬a󰁲󰁬a 󰁹󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁭 a󰁮󰁬a󰁹ışı󰁮󰁤a 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁥󰁲 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış󰁬a󰁲ı 󰁩󰁺󰁬󰁥󰁹󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁫 󰁹a󰁮󰁬ış󰁬a󰁲ı, 󰁨a󰁴a󰁬a󰁲ı 󰁶󰁥 󰁹a󰁰ı󰁬󰁭a󰁭a󰁳ı 󰁧󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁫󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁧󰃶󰁺󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁬󰁥󰁲 󰁶󰁥 b󰁵 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış󰁬a󰁲 󰁯󰁬󰁵ş󰁴󰁵ğ󰁵󰁮󰁤a 󰁨a󰁲󰁥󰁫󰁥󰁴󰁥 󰁧󰁥󰃧󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁫 󰁤󰃼󰁺󰁥󰁬󰁴󰁭󰁥 󰁹󰁯󰁬󰁵󰁮a 󰁧󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲. M󰃼󰁤a󰁨a󰁬󰁥 󰁥󰁴󰁭󰁥󰁤󰁥󰁮 󰁫a󰃧ı󰁮ı󰁲 󰁹a 󰁤a 󰃧󰁥󰁫󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁲󰁬󰁥󰁲. M󰃼󰁤a󰁨a󰁬󰁥 󰁥󰁴󰁴󰁩ğ󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁤󰁥 󰁺a󰁴󰁥󰁮 󰁩ş 󰁩ş󰁴󰁥󰁮 󰁧󰁥󰃧󰁭󰁩ş󰁴󰁩󰁲 (A󰁶󰁯󰁬󰁩󰁯 󰁶󰁥 Ba󰁳󰁳, 2002, 󰁳.97). G󰁥󰁮󰁥󰁬 󰁯󰁬a󰁲a󰁫, 󰁤󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁩ş󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 başa󰁲ı󰁳ı󰁮ı 󰁶󰁥 󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁮󰁵󰁮󰁩󰁹󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁩 󰁧󰁥󰁬󰁩ş󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁭󰁥󰁫 󰁩󰃧󰁩󰁮 󰁯󰁮󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮 󰁩󰁨󰁴󰁩󰁹a󰃧󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı 󰁶󰁥 󰁤󰁥ğ󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁹󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁫 󰁩ş󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁬󰁥󰁲 󰃶󰁴󰁥󰁳󰁩 󰁨a󰁲󰁥󰁫󰁥󰁴 󰁯󰁬a󰁲a󰁫 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰃼󰁬󰃼󰁲 (K󰁯󰁲󰁥󰁫, F󰁥󰁬󰁦󰁥 󰁶󰁥 Za󰁥󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁩󰁣󰁫󰀭R󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥, 2010). Ba󰁳󰁳󲀙a (1999) 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥, 󰁤󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ışı 󰁤󰃶󰁲󰁴 󰁳󰁴󰁲a󰁴󰁥󰁪󰁩 󰁴a󰁲a󰁦ı󰁮󰁤a󰁮 󰁴a󰁮ı󰁭󰁬a󰁮ı󰁲: İ󰁤󰁥a󰁬󰁬󰁥ş󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁬󰁭󰁩ş 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩, 󰁴󰁥󰁬󰁫󰁩󰁮󰁬󰁥 󰁧󰃼󰁤󰃼󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁥, 󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁫󰁴󰃼󰁥󰁬 󰁵󰁹a󰁲ı󰁭 󰁶󰁥 b󰁩󰁲󰁥󰁹󰁳󰁥󰁬 󰁩󰁬󰁧󰁩󰁤󰁩󰁲. İ󰁤󰁥a󰁬󰁬󰁥ş󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁬󰁭󰁩ş (󰁫a󰁲󰁩󰁺󰁭a󰁴󰁩󰁫) 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩, 󰁴a󰁫󰁩󰁰󰃧󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁥 󰁧󰃼󰃧󰁬󰃼 b󰁩󰁲 ş󰁥󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁤󰁥 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁥ş󰁩󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁩 󰁶󰁥 bağ󰁬ı󰁬ığı󰁮ı 󰁳ağ󰁬a󰁹a󰁮 󰁤󰁵󰁹󰁧󰁵󰁬a󰁲ı 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁹a 󰃧ı󰁫a󰁲ab󰁩󰁬󰁭󰁥 󰁫ab󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁹󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁤󰁩󰁲. B󰁵, 󰁶󰁩󰁺󰁹󰁯󰁮 󰁳󰁵󰁮a󰁮, 󰁳a󰁹󰁧ı 󰁶󰁥 󰁧󰃼󰁶󰁥󰁮 󰁫a󰁺a󰁮a󰁮 b󰁩󰁲 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲 󰁤󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁫󰁴󰁩󰁲 (O󰁷󰁥󰁮, H󰁯󰁤󰁧󰁳󰁯󰁮 󰁶󰁥 Ga󰁺󰁺a󰁲󰁤, 2007, 󰁳.318). Da󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış 󰁯󰁬a󰁲a󰁫 󰁩󰁤󰁥a󰁬󰁬󰁥ş󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁬󰁭󰁩ş 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩, 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁫󰁥󰁮󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁩 󰁩󰃧󰁩󰁮 󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁭󰁬󰁩 󰁯󰁬a󰁮 󰁤󰁥ğ󰁥󰁲 󰁶󰁥 󰁩󰁮a󰁮󰃧 󰁨a󰁫󰁫ı󰁮󰁤a 󰁫󰁯󰁮󰁵ş󰁭a󰁳ı, 󰁥󰁹󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 a󰁨󰁬a󰁫󰁩 󰁶󰁥 󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁫 󰁳󰁯󰁮󰁵󰃧󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı 󰁤󰁩󰁫󰁫a󰁴󰁥 a󰁬󰁭a󰁳ı, 󰁯󰁲󰁴a󰁫 󰁧󰃶󰁲󰁥󰁶 󰁤󰁵󰁹󰁧󰁵󰁳󰁵󰁮󰁵󰁮 󰃶󰁮󰁥󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁩 󰁶󰁵󰁲󰁧󰁵󰁬a󰁭a󰁳ı 󰁧󰁩b󰁩 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ış󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı 󰁫a󰁰󰁳a󰁲. A󰁴󰁦󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁮 󰁩󰁤󰁥a󰁬󰁬󰁥ş󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁬󰁭󰁩ş 󰁥󰁴󰁫󰁩 󰁩󰁳󰁥, 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮, 󰃧󰁥󰁶󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁫󰁩 󰁩󰁮󰁳a󰁮󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮 󰁫󰁥󰁮󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁩 󰁩󰁬󰁥 b󰁥󰁲ab󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩ğ󰁩󰁮󰁩 󰁭󰁵󰁴󰁬󰁵 󰁶󰁥 󰁧󰁵󰁲󰁵󰁲 󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁩 󰁨a󰁬󰁥 󰁧󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁭󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁩, 󰁧󰁲󰁵󰁰 󰁹a󰁲a󰁲ı󰁮ı 󰃶󰁮 󰁰󰁬a󰁮a 󰃧ı󰁫a󰁲󰁭a󰁳ı󰁮ı, 󰁫󰁥󰁮󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁥 󰁳a󰁹󰁧ı 󰁤󰁵󰁹a󰁣a󰁫 󰁥󰁹󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁳󰁥󰁲󰁧󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁳󰁩 󰁶󰁥 󰁧󰃼󰃧󰁬󰃼 b󰁩󰁲󰁩 󰁯󰁬󰁤󰁵ğ󰁵 󰁩󰁺󰁬󰁥󰁮󰁩󰁭󰁩 󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁥󰁳󰁩 󰃶󰁺󰁥󰁬󰁬󰁩ğ󰁩󰁮󰁩 󰁫a󰁰󰁳a󰁭a󰁫󰁴a󰁤ı󰁲 (Ka󰁲󰁩󰁰, 1998). T󰁥󰁬󰁫󰁩󰁮󰁬󰁥 󰁧󰃼󰁤󰃼󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁤󰁥 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁥󰁲, 󰁩󰁺󰁬󰁥󰁹󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁩ş󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩 a󰁮󰁬a󰁭a󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı 󰁶󰁥 󰁹a󰁰󰁴ı󰁫󰁬a󰁲ı 󰁩ş󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁭󰁥󰁹󰁤a󰁮 󰁯󰁫󰁵󰁭a󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı 󰁳ağ󰁬a󰁹a󰁲a󰁫, 󰁥󰁴󰁲a󰁦ı󰁮󰁤a󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁧󰃼󰁤󰃼󰁬󰁥󰁹󰁩󰁣󰁩 󰁶󰁥 󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁮󰁤󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁩 ş󰁥󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁤󰁥 󰁤a󰁶󰁲a󰁮ı󰁲󰁬a󰁲. C󰁯ş󰁫󰁵 󰁶󰁥 󰁩󰁹󰁩󰁭󰁳󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩󰁫 󰁧󰃶󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁲󰁬󰁥󰁲   (Ba󰁳󰁳 󰁶󰁥 󰁤󰁩ğ., 2003). L󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲, 󰁩󰁺󰁬󰁥󰁹󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁴a󰁳a󰁲󰁬a󰁮a󰁮 󰁣a󰁺󰁩󰁰 󰁧󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁣󰁥󰁫 󰁤󰁵󰁲󰁵󰁭󰁬a󰁲a bağ󰁬a󰁮󰁭a󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı 󰁳ağ󰁬a󰁲; 󰁩󰁺󰁬󰁥󰁹󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮 󰁫a󰁲şı󰁬a󰁭a󰁬a󰁲ı 󰁶󰁥 a󰁹󰁲ı󰁣a bağ󰁬ı󰁬ı󰁫 󰁧󰃶󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁮󰁥󰁮 󰁨󰁥󰁤󰁥󰁦󰁬󰁥󰁲 󰁶󰁥 󰁰a󰁹󰁬aşı󰁬a󰁮 󰁶󰁩󰁺󰁹󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰃧󰁩󰁮 a󰃧ı󰁫󰃧a 󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁮 b󰁥󰁫󰁬󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁲 󰁯󰁬󰁵ş󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁵󰁲󰁬a󰁲 󰁶󰁥 󰁴a󰁫ı󰁭 󰁲󰁵󰁨󰁵󰁮󰁵 󰁨a󰁲󰁥󰁫󰁥󰁴󰁥 󰁧󰁥󰃧󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁲󰁬󰁥󰁲 (Ba󰁳󰁳 󰁶󰁥 R󰁩󰁧󰁧󰁩󰁯, 2006, 󰁳.6). D󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁬󰁩ğ󰁩󰁮 󰁵󰁮󰁳󰁵󰁲󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮󰁤a󰁮 b󰁩󰁲󰁩 󰁯󰁬a󰁮 󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁫󰁴󰃼󰁥󰁬 󰁵󰁹a󰁲ı󰁭, 󰃧a󰁬ışa󰁮󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮 󰁹󰁥󰁴󰁥󰁮󰁥󰁫󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰁧󰁥󰁬󰁩ş󰁭󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁥 󰁫a󰁴󰁫ı󰁤a b󰁵󰁬󰁵󰁮a󰁮 󰁧󰃼󰃧󰁬󰁥󰁮󰁤󰁩󰁲󰁭󰁥 󰁩󰁬󰁥 󰃧󰁯󰁫 󰁹a󰁫ı󰁮󰁤a󰁮 󰁩󰁬󰁩ş󰁫󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁩󰁲. D󰃶󰁮󰃼ş󰃼󰁭󰁣󰃼 󰁬󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲 󰁳ağ󰁬a󰁤ığı 󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁫󰁴󰃼󰁥󰁬 󰁵󰁹a󰁲ı󰁭󰁬a, 󰃧a󰁬ışa󰁮󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮 󰁧󰃼󰃧󰁬󰁥󰁮󰁤󰁩󰁲󰁩󰁬󰁭󰁥󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 a󰁫󰁴󰁩󰁦 󰁲󰁯󰁬 󰁯󰁹󰁮a󰁲 (A󰁫󰃧a󰁫a󰁹a, 2010, 󰁳.160). L󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲, 󰁳󰁯󰁲󰁵󰁬a󰁲 󰁳󰁯󰁲a󰁲a󰁫, 󰁶a󰁲󰁳a󰁹ı󰁭󰁬a󰁲 󰁳󰁵󰁮a󰁲a󰁫, 󰁰󰁲󰁯b󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩 󰁹󰁥󰁮󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮 󰃧󰁥󰁲󰃧󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁮󰁤󰁩󰁲󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁫 󰁶󰁥 󰁥󰁳󰁫󰁩 󰁤󰁵󰁲󰁵󰁭󰁬a󰁲a 󰁹󰁥󰁮󰁩 󰁹a󰁫󰁬aşı󰁭󰁬a󰁲 󰁧󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁫 󰁩󰁺󰁬󰁥󰁹󰁥󰁮󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁮 󰃧aba󰁬a󰁲ı󰁮ı 󰁹󰁥󰁮󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁫󰃧󰁩 󰁶󰁥 󰁹a󰁲a󰁴ı󰁣ı b󰁩󰁲 󰁨a󰁬󰁥 󰁧󰁥󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁭󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥 󰁯󰁮󰁬a󰁲a 󰁩󰁬󰁨a󰁭 󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁲. S󰁯󰁲󰁵󰁮󰁬a󰁲a 󰃧󰃶󰁺󰃼󰁭 b󰁵󰁬󰁭a 󰁳󰃼󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁩 󰁩󰃧󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁥
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