İLKÖĞRETİM KURUMLARINDA GÖREV YAPAN ÖĞRETMENLERİN ÖRGÜTSEL SESSİZLİK YAŞAMA NEDENLERİ: NİTEL BİR ÇALIŞMA

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İ: NİTEL BİR ÇALIŞMA ÖZET Eğitim örgütlerinde yapılan araştırmalar incelendiğinde, örgütsel sessizliğin yüksek düzeyde yaşandığı, yönetici ve öğretmenlerin, olay ve durumlar karşısında konuşmak yerine sessiz kalmayı tercih ettikleri görülmektedir.

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    Necati CEMALOĞLU 1  Elif DAŞCI 2  Fatih ŞAHİN 3   İLKÖĞRETİM KURUMLARINDA GÖREV YAPAN ÖĞRETMENLERİN ÖRGÜTSEL SESSİZLİK YAŞAMA NEDENLERİ: NİTEL BİR ÇALIŞMA   ÖZET   Eğitim örgütlerinde yapılan araştırmalar incelendiğinde, örgütsel sessizliğin yüksek düzeyde yaşandığı, yönetici ve öğretmenlerin, olay ve durumlar karşısında konuşmak yerine sessiz kalmayı tercih ettikleri görülmektedir. Örgütsel sessizliğin, bilgi ve den eyimleri paylaşmama, çok yönlü perspektiflerden mahrum kalma, işlerin iyileştirilmesi çalışmalarına kayıtsız kalma, açık iletişim ve yapıcı diyaloglar kuramama, kurumu sahiplenmeme, performansta düşüş, haksızlığa tepki gösterme yerine pasif kalma, görüşlerini açıklamada gönülsüz olma gibi sonuçlara yol açtığı görülmektedir. Örgütlerin  psikolojisini olumsuz yönde etkileyen sessizlik iklimi, örgütsel davranış örüntüleri üzerinde belirleyici bir etkiye sahiptir. Bu araştırmanın amacı, ilköğretim kurumlarında görev yapan öğretmenlerin örgütsel sessizlik yaşama nedenlerini saptamaktır. Araştırma nitel araştırma modeline göre yapılandırılmıştır. Nitel araştırma desenlerinden olan olgu bilim (fenomenoloji) kullanılarak gerçekleştirilen bu araştırmanın çalışma grubu, amaçlı örnekleme yöntemlerinden, kartopu veya zincir örnekleme yöntemi ile belirlenen 4 ilköğretim kurumu öğretmeninden oluşmaktadır. Açık uçlu sorular ve yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme tekniği kullanılarak elde edilen veriler, içerik analizi tekniği kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Yapılan içerik analizi sonucunda ortaya çıkan kodlardan bazıları; yöneticinin ‘sözde’ ilgileniyor görünmesi, adil olmayan uygulamalar (ayrımcılık/kayırmacılık vb.), meslektaşların düşük performansı, konuşmanın faydasız olduğu inancı olarak belirlenmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda, ilköğretim kurumlarında görev yapan öğretmenlerin örgütsel sessizlik yaşama durumlarının; yönetsel, örgütsel, işle ilgili ve ilişkisel nedenlerden kaynaklandığı saptanmıştır. Öğretmenler genellikle, ilişkisel nedenlerden konuşmanın faydasız olduğu ve yönetsel nedenlerden yöneticinin sözde ilgileniyor görünmesi sebebiyle örgütsel sessizlik yaşamaktadırlar. Örgütsel sessizlikle başa çıkılabilmesi için, daha aktif ve yeniliklere açık olunması, bireyselliğe önem   verilmesi, uzlaşmacı bir yaklaşıma sahip 1 Doç. Dr., Gazi Üniversitesi, Eğitim Yönetimi, Teftişi, Planlaması ve Ekonomisi Ana Bilim Dalı, necem@gazi.edu.tr    2 Arş. Gör., Aksaray Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, elifdasci@aksaray.edu.tr    3 Arş. Gör., Gazi Üniversitesi, Eğitim Yönetimi, Teftişi, Planlaması ve Ekonomisi Ana Bilim Dalı, sahinfatih@gazi.edu.tr    Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi  The Journal of Academic Social Science  Yıl: 1 , Sayı: 1,  Aralık 2013, s. 112-124     ASOSJOURNAL    Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi  The Journal of Academic Social Science  Yıl:  1 , Sayı: 1,  Aralık 2013, s. 112-124 113 İLKÖĞRETİM KURUMLARINDA GÖREV YAPAN ÖĞRETMENLERİN ÖRGÜTSEL SESSİZLİK YAŞAMA NEDENLERİ: NİTEL BİR ÇALIŞMA   olunması ve mesleğin uygulayıcılarının gönüllü ve istekli kişilerden seçilmesi gerektiği  belirlenmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Örgütsel sessizlik, öğretmen, sessizlikle başa çıkma, örgüt psikolojisi.  CAUSES OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS TEACHERS' ORGANIZATIONAL SILENCE: A QUALITATIVE STUDY ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to determine the causes of organizational silence experienced by primary school teachers.This research was structured with qualitative research approach. Study group of this study consists of four primary schools teachers as determined by a snowball or chain sampling method. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and open-ended questionnaires from 4 participants and were analyzed using content analysis technique.As a result of the research, organizational silence is experienced by primary school teachers is derived from administrative, organizational, work-related, and relational reasons.Teachers thoughts about it would be useless to talk because of relational reasons, and school administrators seem to be interested in the so-called because of administrative reasons lead to organizational silence. According to participants, to deal with organizational silence, to be more active and open to new ideas, emphasis on individuality, to have a conciliatory approach, and selecting the practitioners of the profession from willing and voluntary people are required. Keywords: Organizational silence, teacher, copingwith silence, organizationalpsychology. 1   Introduction Research conducted in educational organizations indicates that a high level of organizational silence is experienced, teachers and administrators in the face of facts and circumstances appear to prefer to remain silent rather than speak (Bayram, 2010, p. 79; Çakıcı, 2008, p. 130; Kahveci, 2010, p. 91; Kahveci and Demirtaş, 2013, p. 61; Yanık, 2012, p. 140).  Research on organizational silence in educational organizations shows that organizational silence is mostly experienced on lack of school principal, poor performance, wrong attitudes, unfair practices, bad treats, unethical behaviors, and personal conflicts (Bayram, 2010, p. 83; Bildik, 2009, p. 78; Kahveci and Demirtaş, 2013, p. 60; Yanık, 2012, p. 147). Administrators' intentionally or unintentionally contribution to organizational silence causes teachers to think that it is useless to talk about matters because it will not change anything, they will be appear as a complainant and gossipy (Bildik, 2009, p. 79; Kahveci and Demirta ş, 2013, p. 60). Teacher who is mistreated by his principal has difficulty in adapting to school, feelings of loneliness, and have problems in relationships in school (Blase and Blase, 2004, p. 253). Organizational silence in educational organizations leads to not sharing information and experiences, deprivation of multi-faceted perspectives, not to participate in development activities, not being able to open communication and constructive dialogue, lack of organizational commitmnet, deliberately not telling ideas, a reduction in performance, instead of reacting injustice to stay passive (Kahveci and Demirtaş, 2013, p. 60), be reluctant to explain their views (Yanık, 2012, p. 147).  When the causes of organizational silence is examined it can be seen that research has been focused on the attitudes and behaviors of school administrators, negative criticism from school administrators and colleagues against teachers, lack of experience and knowledge     ASOSJOURNAL  Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi  The Journal of Academic Social Science  Yıl: 1, Sayı: 1 ,  Aralık   2013, s. 112-124 114 Necati CEMALOĞLU –    Elif DAŞCI –    Fatih ŞAHİN   (Kahveci 2010, pp. 91-92), exclusion (left alone, lack of support) (Bayram, 2010, p. 84). Research has shown that administrators' leadership styles have the ability to influence the psychological aspect of the organization (Bass, 1988, p.25; Bass, 1999, p.16; Bass, 2000, p. 37; Carmeli, Meitar and Weisberg, 2006, p. 8 3; Çelik, 1998, p. 439; Karadağ, Başaran and Korkmaz, 2009, p. 41-42; Karip, 1998, p. 463; Krishnan, 2008, p. 20; Nguni, Sleegers, and Denessen, 2006, p. 172). Morrison and Milliken (2000, p.714) state that organizational climate of silence stems from the two common beliefs. The first is the thought of not worth striving for organizational problems, and the second is finding dangerous to express their views and concerns. 2   Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine the causes of organizational silence experienced by primary school teachers. The following questions were addressed in the study: 1.   What are the causes of organizational silence experienced by primary school teachers? 2.   What are the suggestions of primary school teachers to deal with organizational silence? 3   Theoretical Framework Organizational silence is defined as the views and concerns related to organizational problems are not shared by the employees (Morrison and Milliken, 2000, p.707). Organizational silence has a significant impact on organizations, but there is not enough research on this issue in the literature (Bowen and Blackmon, 2003). According to Morrison and Milliken (2007), this concept is a collective phenomenon. Current Turkish Dictionary defines silence as “not to    be the noise around” (Türk Dil Kurumu [Turkish Language Institution], 2013). According to Çakıcı (2007, p. 721) organizational silence is the intentionally act of employees to remain silent about the technical or behavioral issues which are related to employees' duties or workplace improvement. Morrison and Milliken (2000, p. 721) say that if an employee feel a dangerous situation when he speak within the organization, he/she can deliberately choose to remain silent. 4   Method This section contains information about the research design, sampling, data collection and data analysis tools. Research Design This study is a qualitative research model. Qualitative data collection methods, such as observation, interviews and document analysis can be used in this model. Qualitative research is a holistic and realistic form of perceptions and events put forward in a natural environment (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2011, p. 39).  The phenomenology is one of a qualitative research designs. Data sources include individuals or groups who have experienced the phenomenon or who can reveal and reflect the     ASOSJOURNAL    Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi  The Journal of Academic Social Science  Yıl:  1 , Sayı: 1,  Aralık 2013, s. 112-124 115 İLKÖĞRETİM KURUMLARINDA GÖREV YAPAN ÖĞRETMENLERİN ÖRGÜTSEL SESSİZLİK YAŞAMA NEDENLERİ: NİTEL BİR ÇALIŞMA   phenomenon in phenomenological research. This kind of works require long interviews, so the number of individuals that may be included in the sample generally should not exceed 10. The main data collection tool of phenomenology research is interview (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2011, p. 74). Researchers paid attention to create a climate of trust and an interaction environment based on empathy with participants. In this research, the interview method was used. Verbal communication is the main tool of interview (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2011, pp. 40 -41). Qualitative data in the research was obtained by voice recorder and the interview form held by the researchers during the interview. Study Group Study group of this research consists of teachers working in primary schools who have experienced organizational silence. Firstly, the research process has begun by the identification of the individual and the situation that may be a rich source of information related to the problem. Snowball or chain sampling method was used in this study. In this method, just as the process progresses the names and circumstances obtained continue to grow like a snowball and after a period of time some specific names come to the forefront. In this way, the number of individuals to interview or the number of cases to deal with is expected to decrease (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2011, p. 111). Before the research a teacher in accordance with the sampling selected by the researchers. Then the teachers interviewed were asked the next meeting should be done with whom. Two of the teachers interviewed were male and the other two were female. One participant is working in Ankara province and the other three are working in Aksaray province. Table 1:  Data of participants in this research  Teacher Code Branch Seniority Tenure at the School T1 Elementary Math Teacher 2 2 T2 Social Studies Teacher 12 7 T3 Primary School Teacher 19 5 T4 Academic Advisor 9 4 According to Table 1, the teachers in this research are from 4 different branches and schools. The teachers who participated in the study have range from 2 to 19 years seniority. Data Collection Tools In this study, it is decided to carry on a interview with teachers who were determined. A semi-structured interview form based on the literature and expert opinions was prepared to make interviews. After the expert opinion the final version of the interview form was created (Appendix). Data Collection and Analysis     ASOSJOURNAL  Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi  The Journal of Academic Social Science  Yıl: 1, Sayı: 1 ,  Aralık   2013, s. 112-124 116 Necati CEMALOĞLU –    Elif DAŞCI –    Fatih ŞAHİN   The data of this study was collected by semi-structured interview and a voice recorder. Participants and schools' names are encoded and real names kept secret to ensure that the interview questions to be answered sincerely. Teachers informed clearly by the interview forms given to them. The data collected in this study analyzed by content analysis. Content analysis are used to determine data and reveal facts that may be hidden in the data (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2011, p. 227). Before the data collection, in accordance with the conceptual framework and theory of the study a theme and code list created by bringing together the concepts and themes (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2011, p. 229). This themes and codes were revised in the process of analysis of the data. The themes and codes determined before analysis of the data are given in Table 2: Table 2: Themes And Codes Before Analysis Of The Data  Themes Codes Administrative    Lack of knowledge/skill of administrator    Lack of confidence in management    «I know the best» attitude of administrator       Negative repercussions of administrator for speaking up clearly    Administrator’s being ‘so - called’ interested in      Responding negatively to negative feedback    Authoritarian attitude of administrator Organizational    Negative repercussions of organizational climate for speaking up clearly    Unfair practices (discrimination/favoritism etc.)    Unsuitable rules for organizational goals    Sexual harassment/mobbing etc.    Image of school in community Work-related    Low performance of colleagues    Thinking of increase in workload    Lack of hardware/tool/equipment    The fear that her/his ignorance or inexperience would be revealed Relational    Fear of isolation    Personal rivalries and conflicts    Strict hierarchical structure    Uncompanionable relationships    Fear of stigmatization as troublemaker/complainer After examining the research data with the content analysis, some changes have been made to the list of themes and codes. Tables showing the theme and the code lists of participants are given in the results section and interpreted in this section.
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