Hekatomnoslar Hanedanı. Les Hécatomnides. The Hekatomnids.

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Hekatomnoslar Hanedanı. Les Hécatomnides. The Hekatomnids.

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   on NT iK ANADOLU'NUN TANIKLARI·I Muharr~m Kayhan Kokldlyonu TEMOIGN GES DE L ANTIQUITE ANATOLIENNE. oll~tion Muhdrt~m Kayhdn TESTIMONIES or l\NA-OLIAN ANT QU.TY Mur·arrf m K ' ( .... a.on SN Knyhan 872 1 Sayfa/PJgc/l .tg,• 35 Ill  A ntik Donem in en dikkat çekici hi.~kümdar sülalelerinden biJ·i olan Hekatomnoslar, Büyük Iskender in Anadol u yu MO 334 yJlmda fethetmesinden ônceki elli yii boyunca hüküm sürmü~lerdir. Bu sülale ismini, kuruculan say1lan Mylasa h Hekatomnos tan (MO yak. 392 - 377) almaktad•r; Mylasa h Hekatomnos un be~ çocugu, karde~ler aras• evlilikler yaparak Hekatomnos un ardJJ1dan Ka ria ve çevresindeki bolgelerde hüküm sürmü~ler ir (Resim 25). Hekatomnoslar, Antik dünyamn yedi harikas1ndan be~inc   si olarak kabul edilen Halikarnassos taki amt mezan sayes inde tüm dünya tarafmdan tanman Mausolos (MO yak . 377-353) zamamnda en parlak devirlerini ya~am•~ lard1r Hekatomnoslar Kariaëa ayn• anda hem satrap (Pers imparatorlugu nun eyaletlerini yôneten yôneticiler) hem de yerel hükümdar ailesi konumundaydllar ve yere l yonet ici olarak Çlkarlan, emri altmda o ld uklan Pers krallan ile ·her zaman uyu~muyordu. Bununla birlikte Hekatomnoslar bir dereceye kadar oze rk olarak hareket edeb ili yorlard• ve yanm yüzy1l boyunca (MO 392 - 334) kazanm1~ olduklan ba~an farkh alanlan bir a raya getirebilmelerinin sonucu olarak ortaya •km•~tl. Bu donemde yerel gelenekler üzerinde yükselen zengin kültürel miraslan, d•~andan ge len etkilere açd Jni~ ve uzun zamand1r va r olan bazt koklü ge lenekler Hekatomnoslar tarafmdan desteklenerek daha gôrünür ha le getirilmi~ti Birçok ôzellikleri, ozellikle de bast1rdtklan sikkeler gôz onüne altnd•gmda, MO 4. yiizyùm Karia satraplan ola n Hekatomnoslar, Hellenistik krallann selefleri olarak saytlabiJ irl er. Zira Hekatomnoslar, bu dônemde düzenli s ikk e basttrabilen yegane hükümdar ailesi olup bu durum hemen hemen hiç egi~me en Büyük iskender in geli~ine kadar devam etm   ~tir Diger satraplar da para basttrabiliyorlardt ancak hiçbiri yonettikleri bolgenin yerlisi olmaytp bir hiikümdar ailesine de mensup degiJierdi ve hiçbirinde yonetim Hekatomnoslarda oldugu gibi ailenin bir bireyinden digerine aktanlnuyordu. Bu kahtsal devamhhk, Hekatomnoslann sikke basnmm siirekli lolmakta olup bu aileye ait portrelerin betimlendigi çok say 1da heykelin dikilmesini ve korunmasnu da saglam   ~t tr Hekatomnos sülalesi, Yunan kültür çevrel erinde kendi ailesel varltklan nt bu ~ekilde dogrulayan ilk ôrnektir. Bu aileye ait beykel lerden bahseden yaz1t ve yaz1th kaideler pek çok farkJJ antik kentte, Labranda ve Sinuri deki ba~IIca kutsal alan larda ve hatta Eryth rai, Tegea ve De lphoi gibi uzak yerle~im   erde ele geçmi~tir. Aile üye lerinin betimlendigi bir heykel grubu Idrieus SNG Kayhan 868 Sayfa/Page/Page 13 6  L  une des dynasties le s plus remarquables de l Antiquité prospéra au cours du demi-siècle qui préc éd a la conquête de l Asie Mineure par Alexandre le Grand en 334 avant Jésus -C hrist Les Hécatomnides portaient le nom de l eur souverain héréditaire, Hécatomnos de Mylasa (vers 392-377 av. ). ·C .); ses cinq enfants contractèrent des mariages frère-sœur et lui succédèrent à la tête de la Carie et des régions environnantes (fig. 25). La dynastie atteignit son apogée sous le règne de Mausole (377-353 av. -C .), universellement connu pour son tombeau monumental à Halicarnasse, la cinquième des Sept Merveilles du monde antique. Le s J Jécatomnides avaient la double casquette de satrapes (gouverneurs d une province dans l Empire perse) et de souverains héréditaires cariens dont les intérêts ne coïncidaie nt pas toujours avec ceux des rois de Perse, leurs suzera in s. De fait, les Hécatomnides jouissaient d un certain degré d autonomie, et nombre des exploits remarquables qu ils réalisèrent en à peine plus d un demi-siècle (vers 392-334 av. J. -C.) furent le résultat d un syncrétisme aux multiples facettes. Leur riche patrimoine cu lturel, fondé sur des traditions locales, s ouvrit aux influences venues de l extérieur. Certaines traditions présentes de longue date, encouragées par le s Hécatomnides, acquirent un e plus grande visibilité. De bien des façons, en particulier à travers leur monnaie, les satrapes cariens du IV • siècle avant Jé susChrist pr éfiguraient les roi s he ll énistiques. rts furent les seuls à cette époque à émettre une monnaie dynastique régulière ct prolifique, qui demeura quasi inchangée jusqu à l arrivée d Alexandre le Grand. D autres satrapes frappaient des pièces, mais aucun n était autochtone ni, de manière plus significative, héréd it aire, et il n existait pas chez eux de continuité d un membre de la famille à un autre co mm e chez les Hécatomnides. Cette notion de continuité dynastique, omn iprésente dans le monna yage des Hécatomnides, se traduisa it aussi par l eur penchant pour l érection el la consécration de :, tatues à l eur effigie. Ils furent parmi les premiers dans la sphère culture ll e grecque à pratiquer cette forme d affirmation dynastique de soi. Des bases gravées ainsi que des inscriptions évoquant des statues o nt été retrouvées sur de nombreux sites, des principaux sanctuaires de Labranda el de Si nuri à des cités aussi lointaines qu Erythrées, Tégée ou Delphes. Un ensemble de sculptures représentant les membres de la fam ill e fut consacré par ldrieus ANT[K ANAOOLU'N UN TANIKLARI: 1 Muharrem Kdyhan Kolt kslyonu TEMOIGNAGES DE L ANTIQUITE ANATOLIENNE. Collection Muharrem Kayhan TEST IM O NI ES OF N TO LI AN ANTIQUI TY· Muharrt m K •y~ 3   Co,,., 0 ne of the most remarkable dynasties of the ancknl world tlourishcd in the half century period that preceded Alexander the Great s conquest of Asia ~ inor in 334 BCE. The Hecatomnid~ were namcd after thci•· dynast, Hecatomnus of Mylasa (c. 392-377 BCE); his five children engaged in sibling marriage and succeeded him as rulers ofKar ia and the surrounding a reas (fig. 25). The yna~t} reached ils peak undcr Mausolus (377-353 BCR), who is universally known for his monumental tomb in Halicarnassus, ranked among the Seven \Vonders or the Ancient vVorld. The Hccatomnids wore a double hat as official satraps (governors) of the Persian Empire and as hereditary Karian dynasts wh ose interests did not always coïncide with those of their verlord~. the Persian kings. Tndeed, the Hecalomnids enjoyed some degree of autonomy and many of the remarkable feats they accomplished in just over half a cent ury c.. 392-334 BCE) arc the result of a mu lti-layered syncretism. Their rich cultural background, engrained in traditional and local foundat ions, bccame particularl) open to outside influences, somc of\\ h ich had been present for a long time, but which the Iiecatomnids encouraged and rende red more visible. fn many ways. not lcast by thcir coinage, thcsc Karian satraps of the fourth ccntury BCE were the forerunncrs of the I-Iellenistic kings. They were unique in thal period in issuing n regular lnd prolific dynastie coin age, which remained practicallr unchangcd t il the arrivai of Alexander the Great. Olher satraps struck coins, but none were native, or more signifkantly, hercditary, and thcre was no continuity of coinagc from one famil} mcmb~r to anotiH.:r, as was the case with the Hecatomnids. This :.cnsc of dynastie continuity thal permeatcs the coinagc or the Hec.:atomnids is also apparent in their fondness for dedicating and erecting statues of themselves. They were among the first to practice this fonn of dynastie self -assertion in the Greek cultural sphere. lnscribed bases and im cri ptions memioning statues have been fou nd in a numbèr of places: from the main sanctuarics of Lahraunda and Sinuri to areas as far-flung as Erythrae, Tegea and Del phi. A famd} portrai t group was dedicated b) Idrieus at Tasus and another one might h:\\ c exi~ted at Labraunda. A recently found epigram belonging to this monument in Iasus further und erlines the theme of dynastie continuity in displaymg hereditarr 32 • 33
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