Hagia Sophia in Engravings (Gravürlerde Ayasofya)

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Gravure which is used as a printing technique and applied in creation of works of art can be described as a form of etched, dented or carved print. The design to be printed is first reproduced on wood, metal or stone plate by various methods (e.g.,

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  III. ULUSLARARASI  KÜLTÜR VE MEDENÝYET KONGRESÝ 20 22 Nisan 2018 MARDÝN  T M METÝN KÝT BI EditörDr Hasan ÇÝFTÇÝKaldygul ADILBEKOVA ISBN 978 605 9885 69 0 2018iksad yayýnevi    Edit ö rler Dr. Hasan ÇİFTÇİ  Kaldygul ADILBEKOVA III ULUSLARARASI KÜLTÜR VE MEDEN   İYET   KONGRESİ   20-22 Nisan 2018 Mardin Institution Of Economic Development And Social Researches Publications ®   (The Licence Number of Publicator: 2014/31220) TURKEY TR: +90 342 606 06 75 USA: +1 631 685 0 853 E posta: kongreiksad@gmail.com www.iksad.org www.iksadkongre.org TAM METİN   KİTABI      3. ULUSLARARASI KÜLTÜR VE MEDENİYET   KONGRESİ İKSAD  20-22 Nisan 2018- MARDİN  ISBN: 978-605-9885-69-0 KONGRE KÜNYESİ   KONGRENİN ADI   3. ULUSLARARASI KÜLTÜR VE MEDENİYET   KONGRESİ   KATILIM TÜRÜ   Çağrılı ve Davetli   TARİHİ VE YERİ   20-22 Nisan 2018  –    MARDİN   ORGAN İ ZAT Ö R  İKSAD - İktisadi Kalkınma ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Derneği   KATILIMCI KURUM  ATLAS Uluslararası Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi   KONGRE BAŞKANI   Prof. Dr. Salih ÖZTÜRK    DÜZENLEME KURULU BAŞKANI   Mustafa Latif EMEK  GENEL KOORDİNATÖR    Kaldygül ADİLBEKOVA   KO NGRE DİLİ   Türkçe (tüm lehçeler), Arapça   ve İngilizce   İKSAD - İKTİSADİ KALKINMA VE SOSYAL ARAŞTIRMALAR DERNEĞİ    KONGRE TAM METİN KİTABI ISBN-978-605-9885-69-0 Sayfa 31 3.ULUSLARARASI KÜLTÜR VE MEDEN İ YET KONGRES İ   2018, MARD İ N HAGIA SOPHIA IN ENGRAVINGS GRAVÜRLERDE AYASOFYA   Murat ÇAĞLAYAN   Dr. Öğretim. Üyesi,   Mardin Artuklu Üniversitesi, muratcaglayan@artuklu.edu.tr    ÖZET   Bir baskı tekniği olarak matbaacılıkta ve sanat ürünlerinin yaratımında kullanılan gravür, bir kazıma şekli, çukur baskı ya da oyma baskı olarak adlandırılabilir. 15. yüzyıldan sonra ortaya çıkışından itibaren gravür; günümüze kadar sanatçılar ve gezdikleri şehirlerden betimlemel er sunan seyyahlar tarafından kullanılmış ve geliştirilmiştir. Roma döneminden  bugüne seyyahların ve sanatçıların uğrak yeri olan İstanbul konulu gravürler oldukça fazladır. Bizans döneminde haçlı seferi sırasında yağmalanan şehir, etkileyiciliğini yitirmemiş, seyyahlar ziyaretlerine devam etmişlerdir. İstanbul'un en büyük mabedi olan Ayasofya seyyahların gravürlerinde yer almış fetihten sonra da yer almaya devam etmiştir. Floransalı seyyah Cristoforo Buondelmonti' nin erken 15. yüzyıla ait gravürü; kentin fetihten kısa bir süre önceki durumunu gerçeğe uygun bir şekilde yansıtan en eski betimleme olarak kabul edilir. Ayasofya, yapının anlamına uygun olarak gravürdeki en büyük figürle temsil edilmiştir. Fetihten sonra bayındır hale getirilen Osmanlı Devleti'nin başkenti İstanbul'da Ayasofya, artık bir camidir ve gravürlerde bir cami olarak betimlenmeye başlamıştır. Fakat fetihten sonraki dönemde Ayasofya'yı özgün haliyle bir Hristiyan mabedi olarak betimleyen sanatçılar da olmuştur. Ayasofya, fetih öncesi İstanbul'u betimleyen gravür kompozisyonlarının çoğunda baskın bir Latin mabedi tarzında çizilmiştir. Avrupalı seyyahlar Ayasofya'yı İtalya'daki dış cephesi süslü kiliselere benzeterek Konstantinopolis'in katedrali şeklinde yorumlamışlardır. Fetih sonrasından günümüze kadar geçen süre içinde ise minareli  bir cami, dönem içinde ise külliye olarak betimlenmiştir. Ayasofya'yı iç mekân ve dışarıdan konu eden gravürler, mabedin dönem içinde geçirdiği değişiklikleri yansıtmaları açısından önemlidirler.   Anahtar Kelimeler : Sanat Tarihi, Ayasofya, Gravür   ABSTRACT Gravure which is used as a printing technique and applied in creation of works of art can be described as a form of etched, dented or carved print. The design to be printed is first reproduced on wood, metal or stone plate by various methods (e.g., by hand-carving or by application of acid), then the plate is daubed with ink. When the surface of the plate is wiped, the ink remains in the grooves and hollows and the design on the plate is transmitted on paper through pressure. Even since its appearance in the 15th century, the art of gravure has been and is still being use widely by artists. Since the Roman period, there are many engravings on Istanbul which is frequented by travellers and artists. Constantinople, plundered by crusade during Byzantine period, didn't lose its impressiveness, the travellers continued their visits. Hagia Sophia the largest temple of Istanbul took place in the engravings of travellers before    KONGRE TAM METİN KİTABI ISBN-978-605-9885-69-0 Sayfa 32 3.ULUSLARARASI KÜLTÜR VE MEDEN İ YET KONGRES İ   2018, MARD İ N and after the conquest. Florentine traveller Cristoforo Buondelmonti's early 15th century engraving of the city is the oldest one that describe realistic the city before the conquest. Within the meaning of structure Hagia Sophia, has been representing the largest emoticons in the gravure. After the conquest in the flourished capital city of the Ottoman Empire Istanbul, Hagia Sophia, now a mosque and engravings began to be described as a mosque. However, after the conquest period, there had been some artist depicted the Hagia Sophia as its srcinal the temple of Christian. During the time of conquest to the present day onwards, it had been depicted as the minaret of a mosque and by the time the complex of buildings. In the pre- conquest of İstanbul engraving Hagia Sophia was depicted as the most dominant in the compositions are plotted in a Latin style of the temple. European travellers interpreted the Hagia Sophia Cathedral in Constantinople as by comparing the external facade adorned churches in Italy. Gravures subject on Hagia Sophia's interior and exterior design are important, for to inform us about the temple changes had become the in different terms. Their works tell us the evolution of Hagia Sophia, its environment and silhouette of Istanbul. When a conservation or restoration project being prepared, this gravures are the most important info to be source for restitution. Key words:  history of art, Hagia Sophia, engraving INTRODUCTION Foreign observers visiting the countries mostly use the art of gravure to give a picture to their countryman of the sights they had seen and of the life they had lived within the frame work of the countries they visited. Gravure which is used as a printing technique and applied in creation of works of art can be described as a form of etched, dented or carved print. The design to be printed is first reproduced on wood, metal or stone plate by various methods (e.g., by hand-carving or by application of acid), then the plate is daubed with ink. When the surface of the plate is wiped, the ink remains in the grooves and hollows and the design on the plate is transmitted on paper through pressure. Even since its appearance in the 15th century, the art of gravure has been and is still being use widely by artists. Today many artists use the gravure techniques in producing their works of art. Until the end of 19th century, gravures were used by printers to obtain qualitative reproductions of pictures in books. Whereas today as a printing technique, it is used in the form of "photogravure" or "tiefdruck (rotogravure)" (Sevim, 1996). The gravures, giving a picture of the various aspects of the social life and architectural works of the cities, next to being valuable works of art, also carry the quality of important visual material in expressing that era. HAGIA SOPHIA GRAVURES BEFORE THE CONQUEST Since the Roman period, there are many engravings on Istanbul which is frequented by travellers and artists. Constantinople, plundered by crusade during Byzantine period, didn't
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