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  EX PRESSION  As always, we are interested in your comments and look forward to an exchange of questions, issues, and images on the CISENP Discussion Forum blog,  which will help prepare fruitful discussion for the congress. In our next issue, due out before we meet,  we will publish contributions sent to the Editor or blog: As a preliminary overview, CISENP will be present- ing on all geographical regions and from a number of disciplinary and interdisciplinary perspectives. Te spiritual and intellectual expressions of non-literate peoples constitute a particular focus at the crossroads of rock art and ethnographic research, anthropol-ogy, the cognitive neurosciences, psychology, and geology, …we could say, perhaps,the archaeology of the evolving mind…or the interdisciplinary field of “conceptual anthropology”.  We seek to investigate intellectual and spiritual expressions, as arts are a fundamental vehicle to dis-cover the human mind. Decoding the significance and purpose of visual images, signs and symbols means decoding our collective memory built over thousands of years to the present. EX PRESSION invites your queries and input regarding your own research orientations. Let us know what path you are on, on your way to Atapuerca. Cordiales saludos, Lysa Hochroth, PhD, Editor EX PRESSION invites us to consider the human mind and spirit. Join our interdisciplinary dia-logue with UISPP-CISENP and all those thirsty for an understanding of the intellectual and spiritual expressions of non-literate peoples. In this issue of EX PRESSION, we present a pre- liminary selection of the abstracts of participants in the UISPP World Congress “Atapuerca” to be held in Burgos, Spain from 1-7 September 2014. N°4April 2014 󰁂󰁉󰁍󰁏󰁎󰁔󰁈󰁌󰁙 󰁅-󰁌󰁅󰁔󰁔󰁅󰁒 󰁏󰁆 󰁔󰁈󰁅 󰁃󰁏󰁍󰁍󰁉󰁓󰁓󰁉󰁏󰁎 󰁏󰁎 󰁉󰁎󰁔󰁅󰁌󰁌󰁅󰁃󰁔󰁕󰁁󰁌 󰁁󰁎󰁄 󰁓󰁐󰁉󰁒󰁉󰁔󰁕󰁁󰁌 󰁅󰁘󰁐󰁒󰁅󰁓󰁓󰁉󰁏󰁎󰁓 󰁏󰁆 󰁎󰁏󰁎-󰁌󰁉󰁔󰁅󰁒󰁁󰁔󰁅 󰁐󰁅󰁏󰁐󰁌󰁅󰁓 Brain wiring: neural pathways form a mesh; yellow represents language and connects the left frontal lobe to the right temporal lobe. Te purple curlicue represents Broca’s area, which coordinates speech. V.J. Wedeen and L.L. Wald, Martinos Center, Harvard  Medical School, Human Connectome Project. UISPP-CISENP was founded in 2006 as an international sci- entific commission of Te International Union of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences (Union Internationale des Sciences Préhistoriques et Protohistoriques). Emmanuel Anati , President.  EX PRESSION N°4 2 “Homo heidelbergensis” Sima de los Huesos (based on Skull 5,  Atapuerca) by the artist  Manu Mediaoreja ( Source: Atapuerca post on http://theolduvaigorge. Te abstracts of papers published herein will be presented at the UISPP-CISENP meet- ing in Burgos (1-7 September 2014) on the Intellectual and Spiritual Expressions of Non- literate Peoples.  Additonal abstracts (received in April) will be published in EX PRESSION   N°5. We are pleased to have a large group of interna-tional participants with compelling subjects to discuss. Abstracts for our session have been submitted so far by colleagues from 20 dif- ferent countries of five continents and from 12 different disciplines. Preliminary discussion, questions, and com- ments are welcome on our blog: DISCUSSION FORUMPLEASE NOE  We wish to distribute FINAL PAPERS at the Congress. Terefore, we ask each participant to send us before 4 July 2014, a print-ready text in English, 5,000 words or less, with a maximum of 12 illustrations (600 dpi) and relative captions. Oral presentations may be made in other languages, but all edited pub-lications will be in English.  Join the EX PRESSION discussion blog today.   APRIL 20143 󰁄󰁅󰁃󰁏󰁄󰁉󰁎󰁇 󰁐󰁒󰁅󰁈󰁉󰁓󰁔󰁏󰁒󰁉󰁃 󰁁󰁒󰁔: 󰁔󰁈󰁅 󰁍󰁅󰁓󰁓󰁁󰁇󰁅󰁓 󰁂󰁅󰁈󰁉󰁎󰁄 󰁔󰁈󰁅 󰁉󰁍󰁁󰁇󰁅󰁓 Emmanuel Anati and Ariela FradkinItaly  Te purpose of prehistoric art was not to embellish rocks or stones or bones; it contains messages that  were understood by the society from which their makers came. Te paper proposes the decoding of a number of Paleolithic art objects and presents a methodology of analysis for the reading of prehistoric art, relying on systems of conceptual anthropology. Te decipherment of prehistoric art reveals thoughts and concerns, events and memories that are thou- sands and thousands of years old, and opens up the  way to transforming prehistory into history. Figure 1. Wall engraving of the Archaic Hunters, Altamira Cave, Santander, Spain. Source: relief by H. Breuil, 1912 . wo animal  figures, one vertical and the other horizontal, are associated with two repetitive ideograms with the value of a male, the branch, and a female, the eye-shaped sign. Under one of the animals there is a group of sinuous lines. Over the two pictures the union of two ideograms can be found, one a male (the arrow), the other a female (the lips). Te analysis of the grammar and syntax of the composition will lead to the decoding of the intended message. 󰁃󰁁󰁎󰁁󰁄󰁉󰁁󰁎 󰁓󰁈󰁉󰁅󰁌󰁄 󰁒󰁏󰁃󰁋 󰁁󰁒󰁔 󰁁󰁎󰁄 󰁉󰁔󰁓 󰁓󰁐󰁉󰁒󰁉󰁔󰁕󰁁󰁌 󰁄󰁉󰁍󰁅󰁎󰁓󰁉󰁏󰁎: 󰁁󰁎 󰁉󰁎󰁆󰁏󰁒󰁍󰁅󰁄 󰁁󰁐󰁐󰁒󰁏󰁁󰁃󰁈 󰁔󰁏 󰁔󰁈󰁅 󰁔󰁁󰁎󰁇󰁉󰁂󰁌󰁅 󰁁󰁎󰁄 󰁩󰁎󰁔󰁁󰁎󰁇󰁉󰁂󰁌󰁅 󰁄󰁉󰁍󰁅󰁎󰁓󰁉󰁏󰁎󰁓 󰁏󰁆 󰁒󰁏󰁃󰁋 󰁁󰁒󰁔 󰁓󰁉󰁔󰁅󰁓 󰁉󰁎 󰁔󰁈󰁅 󰁃󰁁󰁎󰁁󰁄󰁉󰁁󰁎 󰁓󰁈󰁉󰁅󰁌󰁄 Daniel Arsenault Canada  Director of the Centre interuniversitaire d’Études sur les Lettres, les Arts et les raditions (CÉLA à l’Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM), Montréal, Québec, Canada  Rock art sites of the Canadian Shield have mainly been made by the ancestors of the First Nations  Algonquian groups, and most of them predate the settlement of the first European colonies. For the  Algonquians, those ancestral sites are still seen as closely related to their spiritual sphere, in spite of the fact that in many regions the past sacred knowledge associated with them has been forgotten, especially the interpretation of their graphic content, but also the ritual practices conducted there in ancient times. Indeed, from an archeological point of view the meanings to be given to a rock art site always offer a challenge. Indeed, questions such as ‘What do the figures depicted mean?’, ‘Why are those sites sacred?, ‘What kind of ritual has been performed there?’ are the usual ones addressed by archeologists, but the answers are, however, not always easy to find.  A contextual analysis of the graphic content of such sites in relation to what is known from Algonquian oral traditions and ancestral practices in the land can therefore become a key-approach for better integrat- ing the spiritual dimension specific to the rock art sites and their venue, as well as the evidence of ritual attitudes and performed actions as having occurred on them in the past. In many cases, the archeological data yielded by specific rock art sites and the tales produced by tra-ditionalists or any other information coming from eye-witnesses about Algonquian rock art history, the people who created their graphic content and those  EX PRESSION N°4 4  who made use of their settings as a theatrical stage in the past — in other words, the perceptions, atti- tudes and practices related to the occupation of those sites — help us now to reconstruct more precisely the spiritual nature and religious context of some of the rock art in the Shield. o show this, the author  will offer some of the more recent results coming from his ongoing archeological project pursued at Ontario and Québec rock art sites.󰁃󰁁󰁒󰁖󰁅󰁄 󰁆󰁏󰁏󰁔󰁐󰁒󰁉󰁎󰁔󰁓 󰁁󰁎󰁄 󰁐󰁒󰁅󰁈󰁉󰁓󰁔󰁏󰁒󰁉󰁃 󰁂󰁅󰁌󰁉󰁅󰁆󰁓: 󰁅󰁘󰁁󰁍󰁐󰁌󰁅󰁓 󰁏󰁆 󰁓󰁙󰁍󰁂󰁏󰁌 󰁁󰁎󰁄 󰁍󰁙󰁔󰁈 - 󰁐󰁒󰁁󰁃󰁔󰁉󰁃󰁅 󰁁󰁎󰁄 󰁉󰁄󰁅󰁏󰁌󰁏󰁇󰁙  Ulf BertilssonSweden Swedish Rock Art Research Archives – SHFA University of Gothenburg Carved footprints appear in a variety of prehistoric cultures and rock art sites and may be seen as a pic- togram and an archetypical symbol. It has still been interpreted in different ways: as a sign of an invisible deity that could not be depicted but announced its presence by its footprint, as a sign of adoration or as representing a deceased person. In early histori- cal and medieval legends they are said to represent the crowning places of kings or as representing a sacred stones on which saint have preached. Tis may, according to researchers like Oscar Almgren, actually be an interpretation, which is later than the srcinal and expressing change of meaning that appear to be influenced by, and adapted to its con- temporary cultural context. In this article we will present case studies on different types of footprints and explanatory concepts from different parts of Europe, mainly Scandinavia, Italy, Israel, Portugal, Scotland and Spain. Te majority can be dated to the Bronze Age or Iron Age but some have most likely been added during the transition to historical times and the Middle Ages. Tis could be explained either as a result of complex processes involving societal and ideological elements and forces or as the result of the creative capacity of the human brain in inter- action with its physical environment, or more likely, the sum of all these factors. Footprints from Järrestad in Skane (Sweden). Photo: SHFA. Gerhard Milstreu.   APRIL 20145 physical relation. Te phyisological reproduction is, moreover, a subject in its various stages: conception, pregnancy, delivery, feeding. In these representations the female figure is major. Other figurative contacts exist, recognizable as ‘rounds’, ‘swarms’ or characters  who carry to others. However, it does not mean that the nature of the relation is clear. Most often, the characters are not in contact. Nevertheless, they are in relation, because of their relative positions and, sometimes, because of particular postures.Te repetition of these representations, associations and varied positioning leads one to wonder about their significant values. Te consideration of the sexual human representations (after some unpub-lished work about the recognition of the signs of their distinction on the paintings of the Serra da Capivara), will allow us to approach the questions of representation of the genre, not only graphically but especially from the point of view of the possible meanings of the network of their relations. Figure 1. oca do Salitre, Serra da Capivara, Piaui, Brazil. Sym- bolic male character with his acolyte character, a pregnant woman. 󰁓󰁅󰁘󰁕󰁁󰁌 󰁈󰁕󰁍󰁁󰁎 󰁒󰁅󰁐󰁒󰁅󰁓󰁅󰁎󰁔󰁁󰁔󰁉󰁏󰁎󰁓 󰁏󰁆 󰁔󰁈󰁅 󰁐󰁁󰁉󰁎󰁔󰁉󰁎󰁇󰁓 󰁏󰁆 󰁓󰁅󰁒󰁒󰁁 󰁄󰁁 󰁃󰁁󰁐󰁉󰁖󰁁󰁒󰁁, 󰁂󰁒󰁁󰁚󰁉󰁌: 󰁒󰁅󰁌󰁁󰁔󰁉󰁏󰁎󰁓 󰁉󰁎 󰁁󰁃󰁔󰁉󰁏󰁎, 󰁎󰁁󰁒󰁒󰁁󰁔󰁉󰁖󰁅 󰁒󰁅󰁌󰁁󰁔󰁉󰁏󰁎󰁓󰀿 Pascale Binant France CNRS / UMR 7041 ArScAn / AnE  Anthropologie des echniques, des Espaces et des erritoires au Pliocène et Pléistocène, Prigonrieux, France Rare are walls without paintings in the tocas/rock shelters of the park of the Serra da Capivara, Piauí, Brazil. Between one and several hundred in number, they are essentially human figures – men, women and children – and animals, whose numerous species are represented, a reflection of the endogenous fauna nearly always present in the caatinga  . Tese figures are represented in dynamic interactive situations of relationships and very often in movement, which confers on them a live character, as captured from life, with something happening. Tere is life in the tocas of the Serra da Capivara and this life speaks to us. But what can we say about it? We suggest here that we should consider more spe- cifically the observable relations between the human figures and, first, determine the elements that allow us to identify female and male characters. Te very detailed character of these representations consti- tutes a rich information source in domains for which  we do not possess other remains, in particular the material data made by perishable materials, acces-sories and costumes, and also immaterial relation data, individual and collective. Once the characteristics that distinguish female and male representations have been established, we shall attach ourselves to the observation of what puts them in relation to each other. What makes the relation on the wall is the arrangement of figures in the painted space and what takes place between them, the action, even the attitude, if there is one. In these paintings, the human figures are in contact  very often. A frequent contact is the sexual one. In this case, the nature of the contact testifies an explicit
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