Baths and Bathing. The Culture of Bathing and the Baths and thermae in Israel from the Hasmoneans to the Moslem Conquest (with an Appendix on Miqva’ot). BAR Int. Ser. 1346, Oxford

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At the heart of this study of ancient bathing and bathhouses is an analysis of the culture of bathing in Roman Palestine and what this reveals about the Romanisation of the Jewish population. The book, a 2002 PhD thesis, includes a discussion of of

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    Baths and Bathing   The culture of bathing and the baths and thermae  in Palestine from the Hasmoneans to the Moslem Conquest. With an Appendix on Jewish Ritual baths ( miqva’ot  ). Stefanie Hoss B. A. R. International Series No. XXXXX 2004    A scholar should not reside in a city where the following ten things are not found: A court of justice, […], a charity fund […], a Synagogue, public baths , a convenience [public toilet], a circumciser, a surgeon, a notary, a slaughterer and a school-master. (b Tal Syn 17 b, Translation Epstein) Meinen Eltern gewidmet   N OTE OF T HANKS   I would like to thank my “Doktorvater“, Thomas Fischer, for agreeing to supervise a thesis whose subject is rather far removed from Provincial Roman Archaeology in Germany. I also owe thanks to Robert Wenning, who agreed to be my second supervisor after the sudden death of Hannelore Künzl in the summer of 2000. I owe a large dept of gratitude to the Gerda-Henkel-Stiftung for making this thesis possible with the help of a generous scholarship. In addition, the Stiftung enabled me to participate in the twelfth World Congress of Jewish Studies in Jerusalem in 2001, where I had the opportunity to present a part of my thesis and discuss it with many scholars. The generosity of this foundation and their gracious and helpful staff were a great support for me. I was fortunate enough to repeatedly enjoy the unmatched hospitality of the German Institute of Archaeology at Jerusalem (Deutsches Evangelisches Institut für die Altertumskunde des Heiligen Landes). The then director, Hanswulf Bloedhorn, went far beyond his call of duty in showing me round the country, bringing me into contact with scholars and tracking down many a bath for me. Even by Jerusalem standards, the library of the Institute is exceptionally well-sorted, ancient, quiet and cool. It has  proved to be invaluable to me and without it neither the catalogue nor the text would have attained their present form. I hope the institute will continue to exist and help scholars from all countries to live and research in Jerusalem. I would like to thank Ronny Reich for allowing me to copy his unpublished PhD-Thesis and for some very enlightening discussions. Martin Jacobs, Ehud Netzer, Leah Di Segni and Boaz Zissu were also kind enough to clarify a host of questions in several discussions. In addition, Boaz Zissu showed me round his excavation at Khirbet Ethri (Judea) and “found” some published  baths and miqva’ot   for me, as did David Milson. Katharina Galor allowed me to use her unpublished articles on the miqva’ot   in Qumran and Sepphoris and has furthermore helped me avoid several pitfalls during the writing of the part on miqva’ot.  Roland Deines also helped and kindly encouraged me during the writing of this chapter, which I much appreciate. I owe thanks to Bert deVries and S. Th. Parker for sending me a copy of the chapter on the bath at the Legionary fortress of el-Lejjun before publication and to Annette Plontke-Lüning for sending me a copy of her article on Roman architecture in Georgia, which enabled me to draw an interesting comparison. I have to thank Martin Goodman and Mordechai Gichon  both for kindly taking the time to talk to a student looking for a subject for a thesis and for their ideas, which were the seeds for this thesis, even if it turned out completely different from what each of them – and I - had imagined. For discussions on innumerable points of this work I thank Eva Bopp, Annette Paez gen. Schieck, Marianne Tabaczek, Wolfgang Thiel and the other members of the Institute of Archaeology at the University of Cologne. Thanks are due to Christiane Hoss, Joachim Hoss and Paul Franzen for their tireless proofreading of the English version of this work. Finally I have to thank my editor, David Davison for including this work into the B. A. R. International Series.  Note: The cover picture is taken from A. Mau, Leben in Pompeij, Leipzig 1908, fig. 228.   I  NTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………...……………………………… 1 1. Baths 1 2.  Miqva’ot   5 B ATHS AND T   HERMAE   IN R  OMAN P ALESTINE  1. The Jewish Tradition on Bathing according to the Literary Evidence…………………………………... 6 1. Health and hygienic considerations 7 2. Religious objections against baths of the Roman type 8 3. Nakedness and shame in Judaism 9 2. The Roman Bathing Tradition and the Roman “Bathing Life” according to the Literary Evidence……. 12 1. Health and hygienic concerns 12 2. Management of the baths 14 3. Design, equipment and decoration of the baths 16 4. Thermal and other special baths 18 5. Bathing customs and regulations 19 3. The Development of Bath Building Types: Architecture and Decoration………………..……….…….. 24 1. The Forerunners of the Roman Baths 24 2. The Roman Baths 27 4. The Two Main Technical Systems of a Roman Bath: Heating and Water Supply……………………… 30 1. Heating 30 2. Water supply and waste water disposal 33 5. Analysis of the Hellenistic and Roman Baths in Palestine ………………………………………........... 35 1. Hellenistic Period (150 – 36 BCE) 35 2. Early Roman Period (37 BCE – 70 CE) 42 3. Imperial Roman Period (70 – 324 CE) 46 4. Late Antiquity (180-324 CE) 49 5. Byzantine Period (324-640 CE) 54 6. Summary: The development, dating and typology of the baths in Roman Palestine 61 6. The Jewish “Bathing Life” according to the Jewish Literary Evidence………………….…….………... 64 1. Health and hygienic concerns 64 2. Design and equipment of the baths 65 3. Bathing customs and regulations 70   7. The “Bathing Life” according to the Christian and Pagan Literary Evidence…………….…………... 78 1. Health and hygienic concerns 79 2. Design and equipment of the baths 81 3. Bathing customs and regulations 84 8. Synthesis and Conclusion: The “Bathing Culture” and the Baths and Thermae  ….……….…………. in Roman Palestine 89 . A PPENDIX :    M   IQVA ’  OT   IN R  OMAN P ALESTINE  Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 97 1. Ritual Purity and the  Miqveh  according to the Literary Evidence……………...…………..…………. 98 1. Ritual Purity. 98 2.  Halakha  and  Miqveh.  100 3.  Halakhic requirements for a miqveh  102 2. The  Miqveh according to the Archaeological Discoveries……..……………………………………… 105 1. Identification of the  Miqva’ot   105 2. Analysis of the  Miqva’ot   in Palestine 107 3. Synthesis and Conclusion…………………………………………………………...…………………. 112 C ATALOGUES  1. Catalogue of Baths in Roman Palestine…………………………………………………………….…. 114 2. Selective Catalogue of  Miqva’ot   in Roman Palestine…………………………………………..……... 172 A PPENDICES  1. Abbreviations.………………………………………………………...……………………………….. 188 2. Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………..………….. 190 3. Glossary………………………………………………………………………………………..………. 198 4. Index of Place Names……………………………………………………………………………..…… 202 I LLUSTRATIONS  1. Maps 2. Illustrations Catalogue Baths 3. Illustrations Catalogue  Miqva’ot   
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