Abstracts of Papers Presented at The International Workshop onBemisia Spp.: October 3–7, 1994 Shoresh Hotel and Conference Center, Shoresh, Israel

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  Linda Langschied olumn Editor Electronic Journal Forum BSTR CTS OF P PERS PRESENTED T THE INTERN TION L CONFERENCE ON REFEREED JOURNALS OCTOBER 1993 H. Julene Butler Guest Editor with a sidebar by Larry W. Hurtado Acknowledgment: The editor gratefully acknowl- edges the assistance of conference presenters. Their cooperation in drafting the abstracts and granting permis- sion to publish in this forum is deeply appreciated. utler is a Ph.D. candidate in the School of Commu- nication, Information, and Library Studies, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, and library instruction coordinator at the Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. The International Conference on Refereed Elec- tronic Journals, held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in October 1993, was a dynamic forum for discussion of the current state of electronic journals and provided opportunities to contemplate the future of electronic publication of scholarly ideas. The conference, hosted by the University of Manitoba, was organized as a springboard for the creation of a consortium of univer- sities, colleges, and learned societies to promote and develop the Internet as a channel for research publica- tion. The guiding premise for the conference was the idea that scholars must accept a major share of respon- sibility for shaping how research is published in the electronic environment. The view that members of the academic community should work together to guide the development of the network for scholarly publica- tion was evident behind many of the presentations, which also addressed highly practical considerations and challenges confronting the still-evolving electronic journal. This column contains abstracts of the major presentations of the conference. Session 1 Okerson and Woolfrey) described the nature of electronic journal publication, including a careful look at the economics of publication. The topic for Session 2 Guedon, Garson, and Huth) and Session 3 Black and Ste- phen/Harrison) was the practical implementation of electronic journal publication, specifically addressing editing, production, and distribution. In Session 4 -- ELF~TRONIC JOURNAL FORUM WINTER 1994 21  (Harnad, Gardner, and Rodgers) issues of quality were discussed, with an emphasis on peer review procedures and acceptance of the electronic journal as a legitimate research publication channel. The legal dynamics surrounding electronic publication were the focus of Session 5 (Bankier, Marshall, and Franson) and changing technologies for information access were addressed in Sessions 6 and 7 (Brailsford, Dalzell, Gerneglia, and Kinsner). In the final session, Hurtado asked the question Whither Hence? and attempted to set the stage for future international collaborative efforts toward the establishment of policies and stan- dards for research publication on the network. (See sidebar 1 for an update on this dimension of the conference.) Full conference proceedings will be available electronically hrough anonymous ftp from the Univer- sity of Manitoba server (ftp. cc.umanitoba, ca). Change to the directory e-journal, then refer to the file named README (in uppercase) in the e-journal directory for further information. Session 1: The Nature, Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Journal Publication The Electronic Journal Environment 1993 Ann L. Okerson, director, Office of Scientific and Academic Publishing, Association of Research Libraries The electronic networked journal as we think of it today became technologically possible with the precursor to the Internet, when the U.S. Department of Defense began ARPANET for its researchers in 1969. It became a gleam in the academic eye when Willard McCarty started the HUMANIST discussion list on Bitnet in 1987 and demonstrated to a broadly based humanities community the excitement and intelligence of academic discourse, conducted in the electronic salon. An early journal with actual refereed articles was started around that time by graduate students in adult education at Syracuse University, and by 1990, several (what we call today the traditional ) e-journals began publication. The groundswell of academic publishing on the networks was both opportu- nistic and optimistic, as a freer journals publishing scene seemed to offer the answers to the vexing problems of serials management and budgets for academic libraries and institutions. By 1991, two additional trends emerged: 1) net- worked publishing moved downscale as early forms of publication such as preprints began to become popular and discussion lists became almost uncountable; and 2) established formal publishers of print materials began to explore the networks and their potential for journal distribution. Today it can be said that both of those developments seem to have overtaken the first flush of personally published electronic ournals, whose rate of growth seems to have reached a plateau or slowed quickly. Some of the reasons for the current status are discussed; some of the concerns are enumerated. Ideally, describing the problems should lead to some positive steps that can be taken to promote academic journal publishing on networks, to fulfill the promise of the medium and the many unique things it can accomplish. The Economies of Journal Publishing and the Rhetoric for Moving to an Electronic Format Sandra Woolfrey, director, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, Wilfrid Laurier University This paper examines the rhetoric that has been used to promote the move towards electronic journals in the context of the economics of journal publishing. It explores the questions of why journals vary so widely in price; whether or not publishers in general are price gouging; the implications for universities assuming greater responsibility for scholarly publishing; and the savings that could be made by publishing journals electronically. Session 2. Practical Implementation: Editing and Production Editing and Producing Surfaces Flexible Designs for Shifting Objectives Jean-Claude Gu6don, Department of Comparative Literature, University of Montreal; editor, Surfaces The essential thesis of this paper is that designing a learned journal in this particular phase of history has become both very urgent, because of the growing economic difficulties of printed journals, and very difficult, because of the fast pace of technological transformations. The audience also shifts quickly as familiarity with computers grows, particularly among the younger members of the research community. As a result, we find ourselves in the situation of riding a fast and uncontrollablehorse, aiming at a moving target with weapons of various, nonstandard calibers. This basic framework is the challenge to meet while designing an electronic journal, but it is not the only obstacle to success: the very nature of the social research system must also be considered and the functions of learned texts must be properly assessed. The latter can be quickly classified under three main headings: diffusion (the apparently obvious, but not 22 SERI LS REVIEW H. JULENE UTLER  SIDEBAR 1: PROPOSAL FOR AN ACADEMIC CONSORTIUM FOR SCHOLARLY PUBLICATION ON THE INTERNET by Larry W. Hurtado From the early planning stages, the organizing cormnittee of what became the International Conference on Refereed Electronic Journals chose to make the conference an opportunity to float the idea of a consortium of some sort. The purpose of this consortium would be for academia to work collectively to promote and regularize the use of the Internet for the publication of refereed-quality research. In a sense, the conference was intended as a sample of the cooperative and focused effort needed to develop the lnternet properly for academic usage, with the program planned to address some of the major questions involved in serious use of the Internet for research publication of refereed journals. The final session of the conference was reserved for a presentation of the consortium idea, with generous time allotted for discussion. The basic premise of the consortium proposal was that academia should not leave the development of the Internet for academic publication entirely to other interested parties such as government, business, and commercial publishing finns, but should take seriously the traditional responsibility and role of academia as disseminators (not only consumers) of research information. Through university presses and through journals sponsored by universities and (more re- cently) by academic societies, scholars have fulfilled tiffs role for some time. In paper publishing the practices, protocols, and standards have been clearly worked out. Moreover, of course, the traditional refereed paper journal is a well-ac- cepted medium of scholarship (indeed, in some fields, the most highly respected medium of academic publication). It has become increasingly clear, however, that the Internet affords not only a handy and useful medium, but also one with distinct advantages over traditional paper publication. Several conference presentations demonstrated the "value added" qualities of network publication already available. With anticipated software developments, network publication is likely to become even more advantageous. The same high standards of quality that characterize the most prestigious paper journals can and must be sought in electronic journals, of course. It is also clear, however, that it will take a lot of careful thought, experimentation, and cooperative effort to adapt and develop all the best proce- dures and practices of publication appropriate for journals published over the Internet. This means that academia should work collectively in the development of this new medium of research cormnunication. Otherwise, there will be needless repetition of mistakes and multiple inventions of the same "wheel." Just as scholars engage in constant interchange in their specific subjects, learning from one another to do their work better, so there is a need to work together in making electronic journals a fully useful and accepted form of publication. In fact, one of the most pressing reasons for a collective commitment to development of electronic journals by scholars is the need to legitimate this new form of publication. Academia is a properly cautious culture about granting academic respectability to new developments. Over the course of time, electronic journals are bound to become as accepted as paper journals. But, given the considerable advantages of electronic publication, and given the limited familiarity with the medium among many academics (per- haps especially among senior academics with greater in- fluence over what receives academic legitimation), it is necessary that there be a deliberate and programmatic effort to develop electronic journals properly and to provide assurance of their respectability. It will simply not do to wait for an academic generation to pass before we can reap the full benefits from the acceptance and use of the Internet for refereed publication. The consortium proposal offered at the conference was that universities and academic societies should join together to take primary responsibility to develop electronic journals. Indeed, the consortium proposal advocated the restriction of voting membership in the consortium to colleges/univer- sities and academic societies, in order to keep academics firmly in charge of the consortium's work. The discussion that followed the presentation of the consortium proposal drew some lively comments on this issue, with a few voices urging the full inclusion of government research funding agencies and perhaps other bodies. This will clearly have to be thought through in any further plans for a consortium. Out of a desire to avoid seeming too aggressive or proprietorial (a characteristically Canadian worry that Americans will find amusing ), the University of Manitoba organizing committee stopped short of presenting detailed proposals for the next steps to be taken in the development of a consortium. The discussion indicated, however, that delegates would have welcomed more such specific sugges- tions for immediate further action. In the months since the conference a slightly revised form of Hurtado's conference presentation has been sent out to conference delegates with an e-mail address. In addition, news of the conference and the consortium proposal has circulated widely among various groups, discussion lists, and bulletins (those published both on the Internet and in paper form). Those wishing the text of Hurtado's consortium proposal may contact him via e-mail (hurtado@ccu.umanitoba.ca) or regular mail (Department of Religion, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2). University administrators and the executive committees of learned societies should be made aware of the idea of refereed electronic journals. The idea of a consortium of academia for network publication should be put before the same people. An initial step would be for universities and learned societies to declare their willingness to explore formation of a consortium and designate representatives to participate in further discussions of the idea. Clearly, we are still at only the early stages of the development of network publication. Governments and business interests (including commercial and academic publishers) are going to explore this medium with great interest. Also, there are already steps being taken (e.g., the ARL) to explore various cooperative arrangements linking academic societies and other groups to use the Internet for research-quality publication. It is still not clear, however, whether there is sufficient recognition of the advantages to a broader institutional commitment of academia to work together in making network publication of research fully practical, accessible, recognized, and respectable. urtado is a professor in the Department of Religion, University of Manitoba. -- ELECTRONIC JOURNAL FORUM -- WINTER 1994 23  so real, function), archiving, and legitimizing. Ques- tions of career and visibility, notions of symbolic capital (to use Bourdieu's concept) all intersect any design consideration. In this paper, the speaker shows how all of these questions meshed to guide the team of Surfaces in the particular choices they have developed and are in the process of further developing as time goes on. In particular, a good deal of attention is paid to the distinction between the ultimate, eventual goal and the best way to approach it. The urgency for any university to get involved in similar projects is underscored, if only to gain a better understanding of the needed know-how and a better vantage point on this fast shifting scene. The conclusion focuses on two points: designing for change, while appearing as familiar as possible to the user. The ultimate goal is a fully multimedia vehicle, enriched by a variety of powerful search engines, structured in a variety of ways, all providing a truly polyphonic tool of communication for the research community of the future. The trap is fascina- tion with the goal and loss of perspective on the possible paths to get there. Investigations in Electronic Delivery of Chemical Information Lorrin R. Garson, Advanced Technology Department, Publications Division, American Chemical Society Although historically the literature of chemistry has been among the most structured and well defined of the sciences, the dissemination of chemical informa- tion is among the most complex because of the require- ments to deliver sophisticated mathematical expressions, graphics (including line art, half-tones, and color), and tabular material--all with a rich character set in excess of 500 special characters. The electronic delivery of such information is a challenge that, when solved, will be broadly applicable to the sciences, humanities, and the arts. The critical success factors for implementing such systems are described. Among these factors are a) database publishing, b) the importance of standards such as SGML for storage, transport, and file building, c) economics of publishing, d) peer review, e) telecom- munication bandwidth, electronic display, and on-de- mand printing requirements, and f) a description of on-going experimental efforts in electronic publishing in the physical sciences. Editing an Electronic Journal: One Foot in the Past; One Hand in the Future Edward J. Huth, editor, The Online Journal of Current Clinical Trials The future of electronic journals is not going to be determined simply by the technologic novelties they represent but by a matching of the possibilities they offer for satisfying more effectively the ongoing and human needs of authors and readers. That which is new is often seductive for the novelty itself--a new toy--but, unless it can be geared to satisfying those basic needs so as to gain as clients authors and readers dissatisfied with present systems of publication, the novelty will be cast aside after the initial playing with it. Authors want rapid publication but they also want high visibility for their products. They also want the cachet of having their papers appear in a publication that represents the highest level of peer approval attainable, winning visibility despite severe competition for it. Readers want information valuable for their needs and at the lowest possible cost in dollars and effort. Electronic journals will not be able to satisfy all of these needs in the near future. The editor's task is to take the advantages of electronic publishing over paper publishing, to minimize the present weaknesses of electronic publishing, and to offer authors new advantages they have not perceived because of their habit of thinking in the publication methods of the past. Lines of enquiry are explored that suggest how elec- tronic journals may evolve into major avenues for scientific publication. Electronic ournals are where the automobile was in 1905; the electronic highways of 2045 can hardly be imagined. Session : Practical Implementations: The Distribution of Electronic Journals So We Have This Great Electronic Journal Now What? Some Observations on the Practical Aspects of the Distribution of Electronic Journals John B. Black, chief librarian, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario At this stage the concept of the electronic journal is still very much evolving and developing, with the result that it is often difficult to get even basic agree- ment on what constitutes an electronic ournal. Similar- ly the distribution aspects of electronic publishing (be it an electronic journal or any other form of electronic publication) are also very much in flux and developing at a rapid pace. This presentation will focus on some of the practical aspects of the use of the ever-extending suite of distribution possibilities. In very general terms, there are two broad groupings of distribution technolo- 24 SERI LS REVIEW H. JULENE BUTLER  gies, both of which have their own technical, economic, legal, political, social, and operational implications: network/telecommunications and off-line forms. Network-based delivery systems are perhaps most visible today, but one concentrates entirely on one or the other at one's peril. The growth and development of the Internet seems to hold great promise for the distribution of electronic journals along with other telecommunications options. A variety of approaches are concurrently being ex- plored and utilized in operational journal publishing ventures. These include • network-based lists, • use of file transfer protocol (anonymous and otherwise), • ARCHIEs and related services, • CWlS (campuswide information services), • Freenets, • Gophers (campus-based or serving wider audienc- es), • WAIS systems (Wide Area Information Servers), • document transmission workstations (ARIEL and others), and • World Wide Web. Off-line technologies that are (or can be) used for electronic journal distribution include a range of possibilities: • floppy disks, flopticals, disk cartridges, • magnetic tape (9-track reels, cartridges, DAT), • CD-ROM, and • other optical-based systems (e.g., WORM, mag- neto-optical). This paper highlights the characteristics of each of these distribution technologies and discusses their potential from the practical perspective of electronic journal creators and publishers as well as users (librar- ies, other potential purveyors/distributors, and end- users . A Model for Producing Delivering and Consuming Refereed Electronic Journals Timothy D. Stephen and Teresa M. Harrison, Depart- ment of Communication, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Although most electronic scholarly journals are distributed through computer networks or on diskette, designers of these journals have generally assumed that academic consumers will send selected articles of interest to print and read them on paper. Electronic media for distributing text are faster and cheaper than print on paper, but few scholars enjoy the process of reading text in ASCII format on video displays. As currently configured, video displays lack many of the advantages of paper. In an electronic environment, it is difficult to underline relevant passages, make marginal notes, check citations, or quickly browse selected sections of an article. In this presentation, efforts to design a software system that will facilitate the process of reading electronic academic journals on video displays are described. It begins with a historical and sociological description of the development of The Electronic Journal of Communication/La Revue electronique de communication EJC/REC). EJC/REC is a refereed scholarly journal, now in its third year of publication, under the auspices of the Communication Institute for Online Scholarship, an organization of scholars commit- ted to using information technologies to further research and education in communication studies. Various scholarly practices associated with the consumption of text are discussed, which emulate electronically the journal display software that has been designed. Session 4: Issues of Quality Implementing Peer Review on the Net: Scientific Quality Control in Scholarly Electronic Journals Stevan Harnad, Cognitive Science Library, Princeton University The scholarly communicative potential of electron- ic networks is revolutionary. There is only one sector in which the Net will have to be traditional, and that is in the validation of scholarly ideas and findings by peer review. Refereeing can be implemented much more rapidly, equitably, and efficiently on the Net, but it cannot be dispensed with, as many naive enthusiasts seem to think. The Net itself was created, and is continuing to evolve, as the result of a collective, anarchic process--a networked effort, so to speak. Hence it was perfectly natural to imagine that this anarchic spirit, which has proved so effective in forging the tools, should also -- ELECTRONIC JOURNAL FORUM -- WINTER 1994 25
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