Palaeoecological interpretation of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) of bulk organic matter in sediments of Lake Loktak, Manipur, India

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Lake sediment serves as archives of past ecological conditions of the lake and catchment. The thesis reports the source and depositional conditions of organic matter (OM) in Lake Loktak, the largest freshwater lake in northeast India to determine

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  Palaeoecological interpretation of stable carbon and nitrogenisotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) of bulk organic matter in sediments of Lake Loktak, Manipur, ndia THESISSUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OFDEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AT PRESIDENCY UNIVERSITYKOLKATA-700073BYSANTANU GHOSHIN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTSFOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF SCIENCESPECIALIZING IN ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRYMay 20!  A""#$%#& 'yD() S*$(+y, K*a( Da.UGC- A..+.%a/% P(,#..,( D#$a(%#/% , G#,1,yP(#.+&#/"y U/+#(.+%y4 K,15a%a-700073  !ckno"ledgement I 6,*1& 1+5# %, %a/5 D() S*$(+y, K*a( Da. ,( $a%+#/%1y *+&+/ # %(,* %+. $(,8#"% a/& ,( a16ay. '#+/ ,$#/ %, .+% &,6/ a/& .a(# a',*% a(+,*. ."+#/%++" +&#a. (#1a%#& %, %+. $(,8#"%) I ##1+/"(#&+'1y 1*"5y %, a# '##/ a'1# %, a+/ a.% #9$#(+#/"#. +/ %# +#1&6,(5 +/ Ma/+$*( 6+% D() Da.4D() R)A)S) K*.6aa a/& D() M) Ca/&(a S+/) I 6,*1& aa+/ 1+5# %, %a/5 D() Da. ,( a11 %#*.#*1 +/.%(*"%+,/ I (#"#+#& &*(+/ y 1a',(a%,(y 6,(5 a% P(#.+&#/"y U/+#(.+%y4 +/%#($(#%a%+,/ , &a%a a/& #/",*(a##/% %,6a(&. '#+/ a/ +/&#$#/&#/% (#.#a("#() I 6,*1& 1+5# %, %a/5 %, P(,) A1 E5'1a& a% :(#'(, U/+#(.+%y +/ S6#&#/ ;A$$#/&+94 F+*(# !< ,( $(,+&+/ # a/ #9"#$%+,/a1,$$,(%*/+%y %, a/a1y.# %# .%a'1# +.,%,$#. */&#( +. .*$#(+.+,/ a% +. 1a',(a%,(y4 a/& a11,6+/ # %,a# a/& ,/ #9$#(+#/"# +/ .,$+.%+"a%#& E1##/%a1 A/a1y.#(-I.,%,$# Ra%+, Ma.. S$#"%(,#%#( ;EA-IRMS< ,( %# a/a1y.+.) I a1., 6a/% %, a"5/,61#&# %# P(,) =,y&##$ M*5,$a&yay4 %# H#a& , %# D#$a(%#/% , D#$a(%#/% , G#,1,y a% P(#.+&#/"y U/+#(.+%y ,( +. a"%+# .*$$,(%) F+/a11y4 I6a/% %, .,6 y (a%+%*&# %, %# R#+.%(a( a/& %# H,/,*(a'1# V+"# Ca/"#11,( , P(#.+&#/"yU/+#(.+%y ,( %#+( 5+/& $#(+..+,/ %, +.+% O(#'(, U/+#(.+%y4 S6#&#/)  !bstract La5# .#&+#/% .#(#. a. a("+#. , $a.% #",1,+"a1 ",/&+%+,/. , %# 1a5# a/&"a%"#/%) T# %#.+. (#$,(%. %# .,*("# a/& &#$,.+%+,/a1 ",/&+%+,/. , ,(a/+" a%%#( ;OM< +/ La5# L,5%a54 %# 1a(#.% (#.6a%#( 1a5# +/ /,(%#a.% I/&+a %, &#%#(+/# $a1a#,#",1,+"a1 ",/&+%+,/. 'y #a/. , #1##/%a1 "a(',/ a/& /+%(,#/ (a%+, ;C>N<4 %,%a1,(a/+" "a(',/ ;TOC< a/& .%a'1# "a(',/ a/& /+%(,#/ +.,%,$#. ;? 3 C a/& δ !  N<) T# TOC",/"#/%(a%+,/4 C>N (a%+, a/& ? 3 C a/& δ !  N a1*#. .,6 (#$#a%#& 1*"%*a%+,/ %(,*,*%%# ",(#) N#a%+# .+% , ? 3 C a/& δ !  N a1*#. a1,/ 6+% + C>N (a%+, +/&+"a%#.+/"(#a.#& &#1+#(y , a"(,$y%# &,+/a%#& OM 6#/ %# 6a%#( 1##1 , %# 1a5# 6a.+ &*(+/ 6#%%#( "1+a%# ",/&+%+,/.) H+#( +/$*% , a"(,$y%# &,+/a%#& OM(#.*1%#& +/ + TOC ",/"#/%(a%+,/ +/ %# 1a5# .#&+#/%.) I/ ",/%(a.%4 a 1+%%1# &#"(#a.# +/C>N (a%+, a1,/ 6+% $,.+%+# .+% , ',% ? 3 C a/& δ !  N a1*#. +/&+"a%# +/"(#a.#& +/-1a5# $(+a(y $(,&*"%+,/ &*(+/ (#&*"#& 6a%#( 1##1 +/ %# 1a5# */&#( &(y#( "1+a%#",/&+%+,/) H,6##(4 +/.*+"+#/% ",/"#/%(a%+,/ , $y%,$1a/5%,/ (#.*1%#& +/ 1,6 TOC",/"#/%(a%+,/ &*(+/ %+. +/%#(a1 T#(#,(#4 %# ,(a/+" "a(',/ ",/"#/%(a%+,/ 6a.a#"%#& 'y %# "a/# , %# .,*("# , OM (#.*1%#& (, #",1,+"a1 "a/# +/ %# 1a5#&*# %, "a/+/ 6a%#( 1##1 &(+#/ 'y 1*"%*a%+,/ +/ "1+a%# '#%6##/ &(y %, 6#%",/&+%+,/) #e$"ords % La5#4 , (a/+" a%%#(  , .%a'1# +.,%,$#. ,    "a(',/ a/& /+%(,#/4 .#&+#/%4 $a1a#,#",1,y)  &able of Content s !ckno"ledgements !bstract List of figures ntroduction'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' 1tud$ area''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' Met*ods''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' 5 E1##/%a1 A/a1y.#( Ma.. S$#"%(,#%#( ;EA-IRMS<)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) @ +esults'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' 1 T,%a1 O(a/+" Ca(',/ ;TOC< ",/"#/%(a%+,/ a/& a%,+" C>N (a%+,)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 0? 3 C a/& δ !  N , ,(a/+" a%%#( ;OM<)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 2 -iscussion'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' 13 P(#.#(a%+,/ , ,(a/+" a%%#( ;OM<))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 3T,%a1 O(a/+" Ca(',/ ;TOC< ",/"#/%(a%+,/)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 3OM .,*("#.)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) !? 3 C a/& δ !  N a. %# .,*("# , OM)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 7 Conclusion'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' +eference'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' 1!ppendi. of figures''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''  5
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