Land use Planning and Water Resources Management for a Sustainable Development Planifikimi i përdorimit të tokës dhe manaxhimi i burimeve ujore për një zhvillim të qendrueshëm

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Land use planning and Water resources management are very important concepts, application of which creates opportunities and aims to having a long term sustainable development, to guarantee normal life of future generations, without damaging

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  Land use Planning and Water ResourcesManagement for a Sustainable DevelopmentPlanikimi i përdorimit të tokës dhe manaxhimi iburimeve uore për në !hvillim të "endrueshëm ENRIKO CEKOUniversiteti Sevasti dhe Parashqevi QiriaziAdress: Rruga “Gjn !uza"a#$ Pa%%ati &'$ h(rja '$ A)arta*enti +$ ,iran-enri".e"/(ah0.0u"!1i%e: 22'33 425 6+ 72 7+ 6'& #e$ %ords & 'alët k$(e) *nglish) 8and Use )%anning$ 9ater Resur.es !anage*ent$ Sustaina1%e eve%)*ent0 Sh"ip) P%ani;"i*i i )-rdri*it t- t"-s$ !ana<hi*i i =uri*eve Ujre$ >hvi%%i*i iQendrueshe*0 Summar$) 8and use )%anning and 9ater resur.es *anage*ent are ver( i*)rtant .n.e)ts$a))%i.atin ? @hi.h .reates ))rtunities and ai*s t having a %ng ter*sustaina1%e deve%)*ent$ t guarantee nr*a% %i?e ? ?uture generatins$ @ithutda*aging envirn*ent0 In A%1ania there is nt an( e<)erien.e n a))%i.atin ? these .n.e)ts and genera%%( the situatin has 1een *anaged @ith the s(ste* ? de.isin *a"ing ?r* a1ve$ .*1ined @ith rea%izatin ? de.isins n %@ %eve%s$in a ti*e @hen the 1est internatina% e<)erien.e sh@s that )u1%i. )arti.i)atin n%and use )%anning and @ater resur.es *anage*ent is a s(ste* and a te.hniquethat resu%ts t 1e ver( su..ess?u% nt n%( in use ? these ver( va%ua1%e natura%resur.es$ 1ut in de.%ining ? .ni.ts ?r %and and @ater$ t$ in a ti*e that 1ththese resur.es are *re and *re vu%nera1%e against ris" ? *isuse$ da*age$)%%utin$ .rru)tin in their *anage*ent$ et.0 , a))%( these te.hniques it isne.essar( a serius rganizatin ? de.isin ta"ing stru.tures$ .itizens edu.atinre%ated @ith use and *anage*ent ? these resur.es$ i*)rve*ent anda))%i.atin ? a suita1%e %egis%atin a..rding t the a.tua% .untr(Bs .nditinsand a))%i.atin as sn as )ssi1%e and @ith qua%it( ? )rje.ts$ a.tin )%ans and ina%% %eve%s$ natina%$ regina%$ .**una%$ et.0 indings ? this stud( have aa))%i.a1%e va%ue ?r a%% interested )arties$ individua%s$ )u1%i. and )rivateinstitutins$ 1ut *ain%( t de.isin *a"ers D .ivi% s.iet( ?r i*)rve*ent ? thesituatin @hi.h has 1een .reated 1e.ause %a." ? *ethds$ s(ste*s$ te.hniques ? *anage*ent and use ? natura% resur.es$ *ain%( %and and @ater$ ?r asustaina1%e deve%)*ent0 Përmbledhe) P%ani;"i*i i )-rdri*it t- t"-s dhe *ana<hi*i i 1uri*eve ujre jan- "n.e)teshu*- t- r-nd-sish*e a)%i"i*i i t- .i%ave "rijn *und-sit- dhe s(nn )-r t- )atur  nj- zhvi%%i* t- qendruesh-* a?atgjat-$ )-r t- garantuar jetes-n nr*a%e t-1rezave t- ardhsh-*$ )a d-*tuar *jedisin0 N- Shqi)-ri nu" "a )-rvj- )-ra)%i"i*in e "-t(re "n.e)teve dhe n- )-rgjith-si situata *ana<hhet *e siste*in*arrje vendi*esh nga nive%et e %arta$ "*1inuar *e z1ati* e vendi*eve n-nive%et e u%-ta$ n- nj- "h- q- )-rvja *- e *ir- nd-r"*1-tare tregn se)jes-*arrja e )u1%i"ut n- )%ani;"i*in e )-rdri*it t- t"-s dhe n- *ana<hi*in e1uri*eve ujre -sht- nj- siste* dhe te"ni"- q- rezu%tn shu*- e su"ses-sh*e sin- )-rdri*in e "-t(re d( 1uri*eve shu*- t- v%e?sh*e nat(rre$ ashtu edhe n-shuarjen e "ni"teve )-r t"- dhe uj-$ n- nj- "h- q- t- d( "-t 1uri*e jan-)-rher- e *- shu*- t- ha)ura ndaj rrezi"ut t- sh)-rdri*it$ d-*ti*it$ ndtjes$"rru)sinit n- *ana<hi*in e t(re$ etj0 P-r t- a)%i"uar "-t te"ni"a -sht- enevjsh*e q- t- "et- nj- rganizi* seriz t- stru"turave vendi**arr-se$ edu"i* iq(tetar-ve n- %idhje *e )-rdri*in dhe *ana<hi*in e "-t(re d( 1uri*eve$)-r*ir-si* dhe z1ati* i nj- %egjis%a.ini t- )-rshtatsh-* si)as "ushteve a"tua%et- vendit dhe z1ati* sa *- i sh)ejt- dhe .i%-sr i )rje"teve dhe i )%aneve t-ve)ri*it n- t- t-ra nive%et$ "*1-tar$ rajna%$ "*una%$ etj0 Gjetjet e "-tij )uni*i"an- v%er- )-rdri*i nga t- t-r- t- interesuarit$ individ-$ institu.ine )u1%i"e dhe)rivate$ )r "r(esisht i adreshet vendi**arrjes D shq-ris- .ii%e )-r )-r*ir-si*ine gjendjes s- "rijuar nga *ungesa e *etdave$ siste*eve$ te"ni"ave t-*ana<hi*it dhe )-rdri*it t- 1uri*eve nat(rre$ "r(esisht t"-s dhe ujrave$ )-rzhvi%%i* t- qendruesh-*0 Introduction: In this study it is shown that in Albania there are not applied in a concrete and suitable waymethods, systems and techniques of land use planning and water resource management for esustainable development. Some research, meetings and discussions with specialists in regional,communal and village level have been undertaken for this purpose. This study has a greatimportance because shows the real situation related to land use planning and water resourcesmanagement for a sustainable development and attract the attention of high levels of decisionmaking for real conditions and for ways and tools for improvement for a sustainabledevelopment. The main objective of this study is to give a structural framework and guidelinefor application of methods, systems and techniques for land use planning and water resourcesmanagement for a sustainable development. Material and methods:  The main theoretical material used for this study is the A! "uidelines for #and $se planning%&&' and other materials, as well as meetings, interviews, discussions with specialists and work visits related to #$( and )*+. Information taken from meetings, interviews and discussionshave been compared with theory to evaluate the real current situation. Results and discussions: The main result of this study is that in Albania there is not a clear situation in all decisionmaking levels about #and $se (lanning and )ater *esource +anagement. There are not strongrelations  links between decision making process in national, regional, communal and villagelevel about #$( and )*+, as important concepts, a))%i.atin ? @hi.h .reates))rtunities t have a %ng ter* sustaina1%e deve%)*ent$ t guarantee nr*a%%i?e ? ?uture generatins$ @ithut envirn*enta% )%%utin0 In A%1ania there is ntan( e<)erien.e n a))%i.atin ? these .n.e)ts0 Genera%%( the situatin has 1een  *anaged @ith the s(ste* ? de.isin *a"ing ?r* a1ve$ .*1ined @itha))%i.atin ? de.isins ?r* %@ %eve%s$ @hen the 1est internatina% e<)erien.esh@s that )u1%i. )arti.i)atin in 8UP and 9R! is a s(ste* and a te.hnique thatresu%ts ver( su..ess?u% nt n%( in use ? these resur.es 1ut in de.%ining ? .ni.ts ?r %and and @ater$ @hen these resur.es are vu%nera1%e against *isuse$da*age$ )%%utin$ .rru)tin ris" in their *anage*ent$ et.0 A))%(ing these te.hniques is ne.essar( t have a serius rganisatin ? de.isin*a"ing stru.tures$ .itizens edu.atin re%ated t 8UP and 9R!$ i*)rve*ent anda))%i.atin ? a suita1%e %egis%atin a..rding t the a.tua% .untr(Bs situatin anda))%i.atin as sn as )ssi1%e ? qua%itative )rje.ts and a.tin )%ans in a%% %eve%s$natina%$ regina% and .**una%$ et.0 8and use )%anning and @ater resur.es*anage*ent is a s(ste*ati. )r.edure ?r *anage*ent ? %and and @ater)tentia%s$ an a%ternative ?r use and e<)%itatin ? %and and @ater under s)e.i;.e.n*i. and s.ia% .nditins t e%e.t and ad)t the 1est )tins ?r this0 ,heai* is t se%e.t and a))%( in )ra.ti.e thse %and uses and @ater resur.es*anage*ent *ethds$ te.hniques and )ra.ti.es @hi.h ?u%;% 1etter hu*an needs)rte.ting resur.es ?r the ?uture0 !ve*ent ?r.e in that )r.ess is the need ti*)rve resur.es *anage*ent$ di.tated 1( .hanging .nditins 4750 A %argenu*1er ? )e)%e inv%ved in the )r.ess ? %and use )%anning and @ater resur.es*anage*ent$ *ain%( in %.a% %eve% have nt a su.ient a..e)tan.e ? needs ?r.hange in use ? %and and @ater resur.es t )revent undesira1%e .hanges0 ,hereis a %a." ? desire in )%iti. %eve% and there is a %a." ? a1i%ities t a))%( in )ra.ti.e%and and @ater *anage*ent and use )%ans 43$6$F$50 As population and human aspirations increase, land and water becomes an increasingly scarceresource, calling for landuse planning and water resources management. #anduse planningand water resources management are important to mitigate the negative effects of land andwater use and to enhance the efficient use of resources with minimal impact on futuregenerations -/. 0ffective landuse planning and water resources management often involves local communities,scientific information on land resources, appropriate technologies, and integrated evaluation of resource use, but in local conditions these involvements are subject of misuse, corruption andoften there are not e1isting at all -2/.  ,he )r.ess shu%d in.%udes "n@%edge ? tda( and ?uture needs ?r %and and@ater$ identi;.atin and s%ve ? individua%Bs and .**unit( .ni.ts and1et@een a.tua% generatinBs needs and ?uture generatins needs$ ;nding ? sustaina1%e )tins and se%e.tin ? thse that ?u%;% identi;ed needs)%anning t 1ring desira1%e .hanges and )r.ess ? %earning ?r* the e<)erien.e$1ut .urrent situatin sh@s that there is nt a )r.ess at a%%0 ,here is nt an()u1%i. in?r*atin a1ut an( stud( n ?uture needs ?r %and and @ater$ there is ntan( initiative ?r %and and @ater .ni.ts res%utin in natina% %eve% and there isnt an( .ia% initiative n %earning ?r* e<)erien.e 4650 In ter*s ? the stud( the e.ien.( is )rdu.tivit( gr@th n %and and @ater$ @hi.hshu%d have as a ?.us ?d se.urit($ e*)%(*ent$ inequa%it( redu.tin$ atta."inga1s%ute )vert($ 1ringing and 1ui%ding sustaina1i%it($ @hi.h is re%ated @ith  ?u%;%*ent ? tda( needs @ithut .*)r*ising ?uture generatinsB needs0 In ?a.t$)rdu.tivit( in agri.u%ture 4@hi.h is the *ain se.tr using %and and @ater inA%1ania5 during %ast 72 (ears has nt sh@n an( signi;.ant in.rease$ @hi%e?erti%isers use )er %and unit has 1een redu.ed 1( &3H in 722+ .*)ared @ith7226$ and %and use has 1een redu.ed 1( '30222 ha in 722+ .*)ared @ith 72264'50 8egis%atin ?r %and and @ater is in una..e)ta1%e %eve%s$ nt n%( in te.hni.a%as)e.ts$ 1ut in the @a( h@ the %egis%atin treat resur.es0 ,here is a %a." ? %egis%atin re%ated t %and and @ater$ s)e.i;.a%%( in *anage*ent as)e.t ande<er.ise ? %a@ ?r.e0 In Pena% Cde ? A%1ania there are n%(  D + arti.%es a1ut%and *isuse$ @ater *isuse and envirn*enta% )%%utin$ .*)ared @ith huge %ega%?ra*e@r" ? EU$ @here A%1ania is %"ing ?r@ard in integratin )r.ess 450 In natina% %eve% the )%an ?r 8UP and 9R! shu%d have a *anage*ent )%i.($1a%an.ing the de*and t@ard diJerent se.trs ? the natina% e.n*($ natina%)%ans and 1udget deve%)*ent$ identi;.atin ? )rje.ts and resur.es %.a%isatin?r deve%)*ent$ .rdinatin ? se.tr agen.ies inv%ved in the %and and @ater*anage*ent )r.ess$ sustaina1%e %egis%atin in su.h a su1je.ts %i"e resur.es@rights$ %and and @ater use and )rte.tin$ et. 4&5$ 1ut a..rding t thein?r*atin the )u1%i. has$ there is nt an( *anage*ent )%i.( ?r %and and @ateruse at a%%0 In regina% %eve% the )%an ?r 8UP and 9R! shu%d have deve%)*ent )rje.ts$1e.ause this %eve% is a 1ridge 1et@een natina% and .**una% %eve%$ and shu%din.%udes treat*ent ? natina% )%ans in regina% %eve%$ .ni.ts s%ving 1et@eennatina% and regina% interests$ de;ning ? needs ?r in?rastru.ture i*)rve*ent ? resur.es use and *ar"et ?a.i%ities$ deve%)*ent ? )r.edures and guide%ines ?r%and and @ater *anage*ent i*)rve*ent 4&$75$ 1ut sin.e there are a %t ? .ni.ts 1et@een Natina% Cun.i% ? ,erritria% Regu%atin and *uni.i)a%ities4e<a*)%es ? ,irana$ urres$ Kr.a *uni.i)a%ities )en .ni.ts in e(es ? )u1%i.?r %and and @ater5 it is evident that there is a %a." ? .*)r*ise 1et@eennatina% and %.a% %eve% ? de.isin *a"ing 465In .**una% and vi%%age %eve% the )%an ?r 8UP and 9R! shu%d have e<)%itatin? .itizens "n@%edge and their .ntri1utes ?r )r1%e*s and .ni.ts s%ving ?rresur.es$ *ain%( ?r %and and @ater$ .%%e.tin and use ? in?r*atin ?r.**una% and vi%%age )%ans .reatin n %and and @ater use$ trans?er ? these)%ans in regina% and natina% %eve% t 1e %in"ed and integrated @ith natina% )%ans$%.a%isatin ? diJerent %and and @ater srts and de;ning the @a( ? use and*anage*ent ? the*$ he%) ?r @r" .rdinatin ? diJerent agen.ies re%ated t%and and @ater *anage*ent 475$ 1ut in the ?a.t$ there is a %a." ? .ntri1utin ? .itizens n .ni.ts res%utin$ %a." ? in?r*atin ?r .**una% and vi%%age )%ansn 8UP and 9R!$ et. 4650 3ontents of the #$( and )*+ plan for sustainable development in all levels of decisionmaking should have 01ecutive summary, Terms of reference, #and and water problems, #anduse and water management types and management, #and and water suitability, Appraisal of alternatives, *ecommended changes in land use, The landuse plan, Implementation of the plan, (rocedures for monitoring and revision and Supporting information -%,/. In most of   visits I have had in about 44 irrigation schemes in communal and village level during the 445 6 44& period, as well as during the discussions with specialists in high and low level, resultsthat there is a lack of contents of the land use plan and water resources management plan and inseveral cases there was not a plan at all. As a resu%t$ sin.e in .**una% and vi%%age %eve%there is a %a." ? d.u*ents$ *ateria%s and a.tins as )er a1ve$ the de.isin*a"ing )r.ess de)ends n @hat high %eve% ? de.isin *a"ing de.ide t d @ithresur.es 43$6$F$50 #and use planning encompasses the following disciplines, Architecture, 0nvironmental  planning, #andscape architecture, *egional (lanning, Spatial planning, Sustainable 7evelopment, Transportation (lanning, $rban design, $rban planning, $rban *enaissance, $rban renewal, etc. As a matter of the fact in Albania there is a lack of specialists in thosefields and sciences and this is another obstacle for application of land use planning and water resource management methods, systems and techniques -2,5,8/. Sustaina1%e deve%)*ent is a .n.e)t @hi.h .an 1e inter)reted as an e.n*i.deve%)*ent @ithut .*)r*ising envirn*ent$ having a suita1%e e.n*i.gr@th$ ?u%;%%ing a.tua% generatinsB needs @ithut .*)r*ising ?uturegeneratinsB needs$ @here %and and @ater are the *st i*)rtant resur.esre%ated0 #and and water resources are essential for farming, gra9ing, forestry, wildlife,tourism, urban development, transport infrastructure, and other environmental functions. Theincreasing demand for land and water, coupled with a limitation in its supplies, is a major causefor more conflicts over land and water use throughout the world and in Albania too -2,5,8,:/. "IS is an important aspect for helping government and commercial organi9ations managenatural resources more efficiently. "IS helps the water resource professional evaluate arrays or ;layers; of information, and hence provides a tool for conducting tasks ranging from watershed planning to assessments of global climate change. As a matter of the fact there is a lack of "ISsystem in Albania, available especially for local users in communal and village level -5/. 3ommunity groups may promote and maintain, in cooperation with state and national agencies,systems for the #$( and )*+, but there is not any initiative or organi9ed public participationon this issue -2,5,8,:/. +ibliograph$) %.ood and Agriculture !rgani9ation. "uidelines for #and$se (lanning. A!7evelopment Series %. *ome, Italy< ood and Agriculture !rgani9ation, %&&' -%%'/. .+ethods and (rocedures for #and $se (lanning for Agriculture development. Training3ourse +aterial. 7S0, =schortao. "ermany. !ctober %&&> -: 6 >/.'.I?STAT. Tables of production, fertili9ers use and land use in agriculture. +ay 4%4>.(enal 3ode of Albania. @une %&&8 -25, 5: 6 84/2.Interview with oci Tahiri, chairman of Agriculture Specialists #eague, +ay 4%4.5.Interview with Andrea (laku, Bocisht 3ommune 3hairman -7evoll *egion/, +ay 4%48.Interview with Isuf 7emir1hiu, 3hairman of Albanian armers Association, +ay 4%4:.)ork visits in about 44 irrigation schemes investments in all the country between 445 44&
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