Heiman, D. (2011). [Review of the book Marcha: Latino Chicago and the Immigrant Rights Movement by A. Pallares and N. Flores-González (Eds.)] Hispanic Journal Of Behavioral Sciences, 33(2), 78-80.

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Heiman, D. (2011). [Review of the book Marcha: Latino Chicago and the Immigrant Rights Movement by A. Pallares and N. Flores-González (Eds.)] Hispanic Journal Of Behavioral Sciences, 33(2), 78-80.

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  Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences33(2) 278  –280© The Author(s) 2011Reprints and permission: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.navhttp://hjbs.sagepub.com HJB 33   2   10.1177/0739986311406240Book ReviewHispanicJournal of Behavioral Sciences© TheAuthor(s) 2011Reprintsand permission: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Book Review A. Pallares and N. Flores-Gonzalez (Eds.)  Marcha: Latino Chicago and the Immigrant Rights Movement . Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2010. 320 pp. $30.00. Reviewed by:  Daniel Heiman, University of Texas, AustinDOI: 10.1177/0739986311406240 As the world becomes captivated by social movements coming from a plethora of spots on the globe, the media oftentimes proffers these powerful events on  behalf of oppressed populations as acts of spontaneity spurred by technology, while suppressing the reality that these political manifestations encompass years of collaboration, struggle, and yearning for change. Five years ago, the United States was exposed to a similar act of spontaneity, as millions took to the streets to protest the House’s surprise ratification of the Sensenbrenner Bill (H. R. 4437) that proposed to make it a felony to be an undocumented immigrant. As a result of massive mobilizations in March and May of 2006, the bill was stopped in its tracks and never made it to the Senate, as the spon-taneous, peaceful  primavera de los inmigrantes  proved to be a powerful ini-tiative from a wide cross-section of Americans. Chicago, with a long and complex history of immigrant activism, was a leading player in this outpour-ing and is examined from a multidisciplinary perspective in  Marcha!: Latino Chicago and the Immigrant Rights Movement  , a collective research project of case studies from students and faculty at the University of Illinois at Chicago, that seeks to reveal that this complex movement goes way beyond a simple act of spontaneity. The intersection of multiple subjectivities and a variety of agentive entry points on behalf of the actors documented in the  book’s 13 chapters coupled with the long history of progressive activism in this city of immigrants are the main thrusts brought to light from theoretical, qualitative, and most importantly, activist perspectives that reveal that this movement lacking in any clear leader was a long time in the making. Finally, a chapter dedicated to the opposition of immigration reform in the form of the Minutemen provides a counterstory that is unorthodox for a contribution of this type, but effective in positing how they are also activists who do much more than patrol the border. Book Review   at University of Texas Libraries on February 5, 2015hjb.sagepub.comDownloaded from   Book Review 279 Pallares and Flores-Gonzalez (2010) make use of the following themes—  political/historical context, institutions, agency, and subjectivities, to highlight that the movement is a hybrid participatory construct, with the key participants  being both legal and undocumented with the former striving for equal citizen-ship and the latter for legal citizenship; nonetheless, there is a struggle with strong ties between the two camps. The chapters drive home this idea of hybrid-ity from a multiplicity of angles, including spaces such as the church, Mexican hometown associations, schools, the media and other third entities that are seen as sites of subjectivity formation, and in turn where agentive opportuni-ties abound for not only legal/illegal immigrants, but other oppressed popula-tions that identify with the struggle. From these specific examples, prior viewpoints of these respective sites as passive, dogmatic, neutral, and lacking focus are dispelled in the book’s chapters, as they are instead demonstrated as  being active, democratic, and goal-oriented entities where the intersection of race and ethnicity give them a hybrid makeup, albeit ones that may not pos-sess clear identifiable leaders. The editors’ methodological intervention in the form of qualitative studies with respect to the previously mentioned spaces offers readers insightful testimonies from the front lines, whereas at the same time contradicting the claim that Latinos were nothing more than apoliti-cally weak and a demographically strong, sleeping giant (Palleres & Flores-Gonzalez, 2010). Chicago’s history with respect to wide-scale activism is succinctly meshed with theoretical underpinnings, specifically but not limited to perspectives on labor unions, social movements, citizenship, and immigra-tion, and offers a multipronged panorama of the detailed background of the mass mobilization and thus erases any doubt that it was simply an act of spontaneity.For the most part, there has been a tendency from those on the Left and in academic circles to label groups such as the Minutemen as being composed of racists who patrol the border rapaciously seeking to round up undocumented immigrants, as opposed to activists attempting to force change in political arenas all over the country (Bleeden, Gottschalk-Druschke, & Cintron, 2010). The authors in this respective chapter reveal that this group has strategically co-opted terms such as democracy, active citizen, the Constitution, and free-dom to offer readers a more in-depth approach than groups from the right normally warrant in proimmigrant stances such as the one that  Marcha!  pro-motes, brilliantly pointing out that the power of rhetoric has been put to use deftly by activist groups on the right in their push to take back their country. Michael Apple (2006) is dead-on in his reasoning that not only are social movements from the right powerful initiatives, but have embarked on wide-ranging social and ideological projects that need to be grasped in great depth, at University of Texas Libraries on February 5, 2015hjb.sagepub.comDownloaded from   280 Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences   33(2) so as to be equipped to counter this “story.” With the inclusion of this chapter, the editors keep the reader off balance by offering the “other” other in a creative fashion, while at the same time not denying their positionality as advocates for immigrant rights.I can’t imagine that the contributors to this multifaceted investigation into the mass mobilizations that took place in Chicago in March and May of 2006 could have imagined the similar displays of social movements that are cur-rently playing out all over the globe, but I emphatically believe that a close reading of  Marcha!  undoubtedly juxtaposes the two events as being rather similar in makeup. They didn’t just occur overnight, are played out in various  physical and cyber spaces like the media/Internet, have religious undertones, involve a wide range of citizens, and most importantly reveal the complexity of whether it’s “primarily a series of coordinated marches or a social move-ment. And if it is a movement, is it one or many?” (pp. 52). By providing the reader with a multiplicity of previously mentioned entry points, I find that this interrogative is difficult to pin down, but nonetheless the defining theme in a city such as Chicago and in a world whose complexity and hybridity are inherent elements in one’s fight for citizenship. Reference Apple, M. (2006).  Educating the right way: Markets, standards, god, and inequality .  New York, NY: Routledge.  at University of Texas Libraries on February 5, 2015hjb.sagepub.comDownloaded from 
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