[Bibliography] (Whole-body relics) “Liuquan” (ob. ca. 1022-1155) – Zhanggong Liu Quan zushi 章公六全祖師

Short bibliography on a Buddhist whole-body relic, or the mummy of Zhanggong Liu Quan zushi 章公六全祖師 (ob. ca. 1022-1155).

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   295   ÒLiuquanÓ ( ob . ca. 1022-1155) Ð Zhanggong Liu Quan zushi 章 六 祖師   Liuquan (11th/12th c. ? died between 1022 and 1155 CE (radiocarbon dating), !   30-40 years old, Buddhist monk): provenience not declared Zhanggong Liu Quan zushi 章公六全祖師  (ÒHonorable Zhang, the Sixfold Perfected Ancestral MasterÓ), srcinal name Z HANG  Qisan 章七三  (  ÇDongkou Zhang shi zupuÈ    洞口章氏族譜  ) (male Buddhist monk, died aged 37, Song dynasty) Fujian province, Datian county 大田 , Yangchun village 陽春村  statue stolen December 26, 1995 B RUIJN  Erik [ http://www.erikbruijn.nl/ -- http://dutchstudies-satsea.nl/auteur/252/Erik-Bruijn.html address: Erik Bruijn / Anton Mauvestraat 20 / Amersfoort, 3817 DL / Netherlands -- contact@erikbruijn.nl ] Ÿ *¡2014a [ pdf  ]   9 Een heilige met kiespijn Ð Observaties bij een boeddhistische mummie uit China.   [ A saint with toothache - Observations on a Buddhist mummy from China (in Dutch) ]  in: VAN V ILSTEREN  Vincent (ed.) 2014:  Mummies: overleven na de dood  . (Internationale archeologie in het Drents Museum, dl. 6) Assen: Drents Museum; Zwolle: WBOOKS, pp. 104-115. *¡2014b  A Buddhist Mummy from the Song Dynasty. Some preliminary remarks on a Chinese art treasure containing a Ôwhole-body relicÕ  . <http://www.erikbruijn.nl/buddha-mummy-research> (Photo © Jan van Esch)   Every scientific research in the Netherlands was preceded by a short ceremony. Ð ÒRadiocarbon dating proved that the mummy dates back to the 11 th  or 12 th  century and that the monk probably died between 1022 and 1155 AD. Therefore he lived during the Song Dynasty, a turbulent period when wars were fought, the culture of the Chinese Empire flourished and the great renaissance of Taoism and Confucianism took place. These native religions mutually turned against the foreign Buddhist influence, steeped as it was in corruption and decay. Its wealthy monasteries and dazzling shrines had become a heavy burden on the nationÕs economy. However, the monk under discussion, belonged to a reformatory Buddhist movement, which strove to return to simplicity, intuition and nature. This new movement, the ChÕan School or School of Meditation, incorporated various elements from other Buddhist traditions and was so close to the people that it survived in numerous sects and subsects, while its mother church declined.Ó ÒThe monkÕs teeth were eroded in a few places. The penultimate molar in his left bottom jaw showed a serious tooth abscess and the wisdom tooth next to it has been affected by caries. Given that such an abscess develops slowly, the monk must have suffered excruciating recurring pains over a long period of time. This abscess might have even led to his death.Ó   296 ÒThe monks clothing consists of several layers. The upper garment suggests a precious two-piece ceremonial garment made of brocade, lined or padded with a red fabric, richly decorated with lucky clouds and a floral pattern, and two flying dragons in overlaid golden embroidery as the main sign of good fortune. All this alludes to a heavenly version of the k‰s‰ya, the traditional robe of a Buddhist monk, which is made up of pieces of discarded cloth sewn together. / Underneath the monk is wearing the usual grey monastic garb. / The gold-coloured upper garment confirms the monkÕs high status and suggests we are dealing with a master, possibly an abbot.The decorations on the upper garment are overlaid in a threadlike structure. Due to their meaning as important, lucky symbols, the dragons have been designed with more care and attention than the other decorations. They are depicted in a style characteristic of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644 AD), confirming that the reliquary statue was redressed and gilded again during that time-period. Dragons embody longevity and irresistible power.Ó *   forthc.  Master Liuquan Ð a unique song dynasty mummy: an earthly bodhisattva preserved  for eternity.  Place of publication to be determined, 2015/2016. VAN V ILSTEREN  Vincent T. [ <V.vanVilsteren@drentsmuseum.nl> ]  ¡2014 [ pdf  ]   Zelfmummificatie . in: VAN V ILSTEREN  Vincent (ed.) 2014:  Mummies: overleven na de dood  . (Internationale archeologie in het Drents Museum, dl. 6) Assen: Drents Museum; Zwolle: WBOOKS, pp. 116-117. V AN  J AARSVELDT  Janene   ¡2014 [ pdf  ]   1000-year-old Chinese mummy gets CT scan in Amersfoort.  in: NL Times, Dec 9, 2014, with 4 colour photographs (by Drents Museum and Jan VAN E SCH  ). (Amsterdam) <http://www.nltimes.nl/2014/12/09/1000-year-old-chinese-mummy-gets-ct-scan-amersfoort/> [ (Press release) Liuquan (11th/12th c. ?, ! , Buddhist monk); exhibited in Drents Museum, The Netherlands (provenance?). Ð Full text: ÒA special examination recently occurred in the Meander Medical Center. A nearly 1,000 year old mummy received a CT scan and had samples taken with an endoscope. Several hospital employees helped with this unique project in their free time. / The leader of this study is the Amersfoort resident Erik Bruijn, an expert in the field of Buddhist art and culture and guest curator at the World Museum in Rotterdam. Gastrointestinal and liver doctor Reinoud Vermeijden and radiologist Ben Heggelman received the Chinese mummy at the hospital for internal examination on September 3rd. The mummy was part of the Mummies exhibition earlier this year and dates from the 11th or 12th century. / The mummy is the mummified body of the Buddhist master Liuquan, who belonged to the Chinese Meditation School. The discovery of the mummy is of great cultural significance. It is not only the only one of its kind, but also the only Chinese Buddhist mummy that is available for scientific research in the West. / With an endoscope made specially available by Surgical Technologies in Didam, Vermeijden took samples of a yet unidentified material and examined the thoracic and abdominal cavities. He made a spectacular discovery  Ð among all kinds of rotten material in the space where there had one been organs, he found paper scraps that are printed with ancient Chinese characters. Heggelman took a CT scan that beautifully shows how the mummy looks inside and took samples of bone material for DNA testing. / The research will be published in the monograph that will appear on Master Liuquan. The mummy has since been taken to Hungary where it will be on display at the National Museum of Natural History in Budapest until May 2015.Ó ]     297 Mummified buddhist master Liuquan. Statue (L), CT scan (R). (Photos: Drents Museum) <http://www.nltimes.nl/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Chinese-Mummy-Scan-low-res.jpg> Picture: Jan van Esch / Meander Medisch Centrum <http://www.nltimes.nl/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/10846265_277516262457891_8006356952906700695_n.jpg>   298 Picture: Jan van Esch / Meander Medisch Centrum <http://www.nltimes.nl/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/10805713_277516225791228_7224157569591941509_n.jpg> Picture: Jan van Esch / Meander Medisch Centrum http://www.nltimes.nl/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/10849840_277516312457886_4396193397597113609_n.jpg A  N  (editor) 2015  Disputed Buddha statue with mummified monk inside withdrawn by Dutch owner. in: Xinhuanet, English.news.cn 2015-03-21 13:00:18. <http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2015-03/21/c_134085881.htm>     299 [ (Press reelase) (Full text) BUDAPEST, March 20 (Xinhua) Ð A Buddha statue that conceals the remains of a monk who turned himself into a mummy was withdrawn from the Hungarian Natural History Museum by its Dutch owner in Budapest on Friday. / The statue was the centerpiece of the ÒMummy WorldÓ exhibition that opened last October and was srcinally scheduled to be on display till May 17. / The museumÕs spokeswoman Monika Kiss-Stefan told Xinhua that the Dutch had not yet given any reason for this decision. / A shipping company took the statue away Friday afternoon, Kiss-Stefan said. ÒI was shocked and I regret it.Ó / The Hungarian Natural History Museum borrowed the Buddha statue from the Drents Museum in Assen, the Netherlands. But it belongs to a Dutch private collector who bought it in 1996. / Ildiko Szikossy, an anthropologist working in the museum, told Xinhua that the Dutch museum called the Hungarian museum just before Friday noon, saying the owner decided to withdraw the statue and the car was on the way to the museum. The owner didnÕt appear, she said. / The statueÕs secret was revealed gradually in recent years. A CT scan done at the Meander Medical Center in Amsterdam last year found that inside the statue was a mummy of a 30-40-year-old Buddhist monk who lived around 1100 AD. The monk sits on a pillow that dates to 300 years later. / Chinese characters are written on the side of the pillow which was displayed in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. According to the characters, the monkÕs name was Zhang Liuquan. / Villagers living in Yangchun, a village in ChinaÕs southeastern province of Fujian, claimed that this Buddha statute was the one stolen from their villageÕs temple in 1995, Chinese media reported recently. / Editor: An ]   A  NON . ¡2015 [ pdf  ]    Dutch collector willing to return Buddha . (chinadaily.com.cn) Updated: 2015-03-27 10:48:39. <http://m.chinadaily.com.cn/en/2015-03/27/content_19926833.htm>   [ (Press release) (Full text) The Dutch private collector who now owns the 1,000-year-old Buddha statue with a mummified monk inside is willing to return the relic to China, if the statue is proven to be stolen from China, according to Amsterdam-based newspaper NRC Handelsblad. / According to the report, the current owner, who works as an architect in Amsterdam, purchased the statue for 40,000 guilders ($19,786) in 1995, the same year a Buddha statue was reported stolen from China. / Jin Ruiguo, an official with the State Administration of Cultural Heritage (SACH), said in a statement that based on photos, local archives and witness statements, SACH can confirm that this Buddha statue was stolen from a temple in Yangchun village in east China's Fujian province in 1995. / The collector said the statue is indeed similar to the one in photos of the Buddha stolen from China. However, the Chinese reports say the Buddha was stolen in October, 1995 by the lunar calendar (which corresponds to the period from end of November to mid December, 1995 by the solar calendar), but the collector can prove that the statue was already in the Netherlands in mid 1995, hence it is uncertain whether the two Buddha statues are the same one. / The owner is willing to invest more, including in DNA testing technologies, to further verify the identity of the Buddha. The SACH is also gathering more evidence and working with other departments to secure the statue's return, Jin said. / The statue attracted attention after a CT scan last year found it contained a mummy of a 12th century Buddhist monk. The monk sits on a pillow that is around 300 years older. / Chinese characters are written on the side of the pillow, which say the monk's name was Zhang Liuquan. / The Buddha statue was included in a "Mummy World" exhibition at the Hungarian Natural History Museum, which opened in October last  year. It was srcinally scheduled to be on display until May 17. / The Hungarian Natural History Museum borrowed the statue from the Drents Museum in Assen, the Netherlands. On March 20, the Dutch owner withdrew the statue from the exhibition in order to "calmly and critically evaluate the unexpected situation," said a statement sent to Xinhua by the owner's spokesman. / According to Yangchun archives, a monk, living in the village in the Song Dynasty (960-1279), helped cure people with his knowledge of Chinese herbal medicine. When he died, his body was mummified and local people made a statue to hold his body. The statue was worshipped as an icon. / The collector was once offered 10 million euro for the statue, but declined to sell it despite the impressive sum. If the statue is indeed the one stolen from China, the collector is willing to return the statue, but wishes that it would return to the village where it was srcinally worshipped, instead of to showcases at museums. ]   B RUIJN  Erik, A  LTERAUGE  Amelie, Z ESCH  Stephanie, H EGGELMAN  Ben, M ITSCHKE  Sylvia, C OLETTI  Francesca, R OSENDAHL  Wilfried, Z INK  Albert   &  VAN V ILSTEREN  Vincent ¡2015 2   [ pdf  ]    Die Mumie im Inneren Ð eine Ÿbermodellierte Mumie eines buddhistischen Mšnchs.  In: W IECZOREK , A. & R OSENDAHL , W. (Hrsg.),  Mumien Ð der Traum vom ewigen Leben . Begleitband zur Sonderausstellung ÒMUMIEN Ð
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