Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies Free Europe Committee: Changing Policies from the Cold War to Détente "The Establishment of the Romanian National Committee and Its Relations with the National Committee for a

Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies Free Europe Committee: Changing Policies from the Cold War to Détente "The Establishment of the Romanian National Committee and Its Relations with the National Committee for a Free

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  Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies 45th Annual ConventionBoston, MANovember 21-24, 2013 Free Europe Committee: Changing Policies from the Cold War to Détente Marius Iulian Petraru, California tate !, a"ramento "he Esta!lishment of the omanian #ational Committee and $ts elations %ith the #ational Committee for a Free Europe and the &ther #ational Councils"  #here is little information about the e$isten"e an% a"tivit& of the 'omanian National Committee an% about its relations (ith the National Committee for )ree *uro+e an% (ith the other National Coun"ils Neither 'omanian, nor Ameri"an historians have (ritten an& "om+rehensive stu%ies about this sube"t)ollo(in. the +oliti"al events that too/ +la"e in 'omania in 145, alon. (ith the oviet troo+s o""u+&in. 'omania, the Communist re.ime in Mos"o( su""ee%e% over a short +erio% of time in installin. their o(n re+ressive s&stem an% annihilatin. an& form of 'omanian +oliti"al resistan"e A "onsi%erable +art of the 'omanian +oliti"al an% intelle"tual "lass foun% their refu.e in the .reat *uro+ean "a+itals or in the !nite% tates #he %ee+enin. of the international +oliti"al "risis follo(in. the %ivision of the ne( ones of influen"e that (ere establishe% b& the Paris Pea"e, lea% the !nite% tates to rea"t vehementl& b& o+enl& su++ortin. the for the liberation of the *astern *uro+e from un%er the oviet 'ussian o""u+ation an% influen"e #he %e"laration ma%e b& eneral Ni"olae '%es"u on 6"tober 30, 147 before his leavin. for the !A, sums u+ the obe"tive of the *ast *uro+ean emi.ration, namel& that of "ontinuin. the liberation efforts on the Ameri"an soil8 I .o to Ameri"a be"ause all the "ountries un%er 'ussian oviet sube"tion +ut all their ho+es in the +eo+le an% .overnment of Ameri"a an% in !N1  6n Mar"h 11, 147, the 'omanian +oliti"al immi.rants too/ note of the )orei.n A.ents 'e.istration A"t of 139 But even before startin. the %is"ussions about formin. a National Committee, the& (ere alrea%& havin. %is+utes that (ere "ause% both b& +ersonal ambitions an% finan"ial issues After hearin. the +ersonal testimonies of eneral N '%es"u, :iorel #ilea an% Carol ;avila to the ;e+artment of tate on <une 10, 149, =ora"e Ni"/els %e"lare% that8 >e have been %isturbe% for some time about re+orts of %ifferen"es bet(een 'umanian e$iles It has be"ome a matter of in"reasin. "on"ern an% of embarrassment to us that these %ifferen"es "ontinue? >e have onl& tol% Mr Cretianu an% Mr Ni"ules"u-Bue@ti that (e %o not (ant to e$+ress an o+inion on the +oint (hether a Committee shoul% or shoul% not be forme%, but (e (oul% not (el"ome to have at this time a formation resemblin. a overnment in *$ile #his (as our onl& obe"tionur+assin. all %ifferen"es of o+inion amon. the 'omanian +oliti"al e$iles an% havin. the a++roval of in. Mi"hael, eneral '%es"u offi"iall& notifie% the Ameri"an e"retar& of tate, ;ean A"heson, on Ma& 3, 14 about the "onstitution of the 'omanian National Committee #he "ommittee, "onsistin. of ten members %es"ribe% as re+resentatives of the three main 'omanian %emo"rati" +arties, (as or.anie% to for the in%e+en%en"e of 'omania an% to restore the human ri.hts an% fun%amental free%oms %estro&e% b& the Bu"harest +u++et .overnment at the %i"tation of Mos"o(  #he "oo+eration bet(een NC)* an% 'NC ha% its %ebut in the summer of 14, (hen )re%eri" ;olbeare, on Au.ust , as/e% '%es"u to "om+rise a list of less than ten +oliti"al an% intelle"tual +ersonalities from amon. the 'omanian e$iles (ho resi%e% in the !nite% tates an% (ho (oul% have been o+en to bein. hire% b& the NC)* for 2  various o+enin.s at the Center of 'esear"h an% Information, at the 'omanian e"tion 6ne month later, on e+tember 13, 14, '%es"u as/e% ;olbeare to intervene (ith the ! ;e+artment of <usti"e Immi.ration an% Naturaliation ervi"e in or%er to hel+ a small number of 'omanian +oliti"al e$iles (ho (ere in a %es+erate situation, bein. on the +oint of losin. their ri.hts of resi%in. in the !nite% tatesIn the summer of 14, imme%iatel& after the 'NC (as establishe%, '%es"u informin. the /in. of internal Committee %isa.reements an% animosities as (ell as about the %iffi"ulties he en"ountere% in %ialo.ue (ith other members Countin. on +oliti"al an% finan"ial su++ort both from insi%e an% outsi%e the Committee, in the s+rin. of 150 eneral '%es"u sto++e% "onvo/in. the Committee #he basi" reasons for the s"hism (ithin the Committee a++ear in a letter entitle% #he *n% on e+tember 14, 150, b& '%es"u, Caranfil, )r"@anu an% afen"u After first briefl& revie(in. the im+ortant ste+s that le% to establishin. the 'NCDs o+eratin. a.reements, the authorsD state their %e"ision to resi.n from the Committee base% on a letter sent to eneral Petre-Ear the /in.Ds +ersonal se"retar& on e+tember 4, 150 in. Mi"hael name% an *$e"utive Committee of three +ersons (ith the +ur+ose of resumin. the a"tivit& of the Committee After this a++ointment, meant to sto+ the sabota.e a"tions, eneral '%es"u an% three other members of the Committee %e"lare% that the& "onsi%ere% the Committee %issolve% Base% on the re"ommen%ations of the maorit& of the Committee, the in. name% on 6"tober 13, 150, a ne( +resi%ent in the +erson of Constantin :i@oianu, former Minister of )orei.n Affairs, an% the Committee resume% its a"tivit&3  Alon. (ith the %ee+enin. of the "risis insi%e the 'NC, NC)*Ds +osition to(ar%s the +roblem of the 'omanian "ommittee (as ver& "ontroversial Instea% of a%o+tin. a neutral +osition or at least me%iatin. the "onfli"t bet(een the t(o si%es that (ere forme% insi%e the Committee, NC)* voluntaril& su++orte% the minorit& si%e le% b& eneral '%es"u, an% this (a& NC)* "ontribute% to further intensif&in. the "risis  #hus, on 6"tober 1F, 150, )re%eri" ;olbeare informe% Constantin :i@oianu that #he National Committee for a )ree *uro+e has foun% that the former 'omanian National Committee is no( in a state of %issolution In vie( of this unfortunate %evelo+ment, it (ill be im+ossible for the NC)* to ma/e a "ontinuous, re.ular "ontribution to the former Committee as a unit In his re+l& on November 2 n%  to(ar%s Mr ;olbeare, the ne( +resi%ent of 'NC informe% him that 'NC is not in a state of %issolution an% it is "lear that the 'NC "annot "on"eivable be %issolve% b& a minorit& of its members ;issentin., the& "an at most leave the Committee But the Committee itself "ontinues to e$ist, base% u+on the (ill of its maorit& an% u+on the "onstitutional authorit& of the in.After November 2, 150, NC)*Ds tone "on"ernin. the "ommittee "risis (oul% .ain an authoritarian note the moment (hen it (oul% %ire"tl& intervene in the attributions an% %e"isions the ne( Committee ha% +romise% to fulfill In his letter to Ale$an%ru Cretianu on November 27, 150, )re%eri" ;olbeare informe% him that the subvention for the Committee e"retariat in >ashin.ton (ill onl& "ontinue if the +remises "an be use% for a non-+oliti"al +ur+oseMoreover, a hi.hl& +ositione% NC)* member, Carol ;avila, the +resi%ent of the 'omanian se"tion of the Center of 'esear"h an% Information, le% a hostile a"tion to(ar%s 'NC #hus, C ;avila le% ne.ative amon. the 'omanians in 4  ;ias+ora, reGuestin. that no one (oul% a""e+t to "oo+erate (ith the National Committee be"ause the Committee (as (ith hostilit& b& the NC)* =e also s+rea% throu.hout the ;ias+ora a %e"laration that (as su++ose% to have been ma%e b& <ose+h re(-"hairman of NC)*- in (hi"h he affirme% that the re"o.nition of 'NC (as the soverei.n of )ree *uro+e or.aniation an% "oul% not %e+en% on forei.n inun"tions or u+on the a++roval or %isa++roval of a overei.n in e$ile  #his su++ose% %e"laration (as s+rea% in hun%re%s of "o+ies amon. the 'omanian e$iles throu.hout various forei.n "ountries #he +osition of the NC)* to(ar%s the 'omanian issue ha% a ne.ative effe"t u+on the 'omanian National Committee an%, a""or%in. to the %e"laration of Ale$an%ru Cretianu, it also in%ire"tl& "ontribute% to the "risis insi%e the Ce"hoslova/ Committee <ust as in the "ase of the 'NC, a minorit& of the Ce"hoslova/ Committee left the "ommittee an% later %e"lare% that the Coun"il for a )ree Ce"hoslova/ia ha% "ease% to e$istAnother as+e"t (as the im+li"ation of the NC)* in the sele"tion of the 'omanian staff for the ra%io transmissions to(ar%s 'omania In the letters (ritten in ;e"ember 150 to <ohn Cam+bell, the =ea% of the *astern *uro+ean Affair 6ffi"e, an% to <ose+h C re(, the Chairman of the Boar% of NC)*, Constantin :i@oianu re+eate%l& +ointe% out the ease (ith (hi"h *ri/ #horbe"/e, the re+resentative of one of the NC)* %e+artments in *uro+e, sele"te% the 'omanian "an%i%ates, (ithout havin. "onsi%ere% the re"ommen%ations of 'NC In or%er to stren.then the soli%arit& of +oliti"al e$iles from *ast-Central *uro+e an% follo(in. %is"ussion in the #ues%a& Panel .rou+ on )ebruar& 11, 151, 1F9 e$ile lea%ers (ent to Phila%el+hia an% .athere% at In%e+en%en"e =all (here the& 5
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